'T Mannetje A.,Massey University |
Brennan P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer |
Zaridze D.,Institute of Carcinogenesis |
Szeszenia-Dabrowska N.,University of Lodz |
And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012
Occupation as a welder has been associated with a 25%-40% increase in lung cancer risk. This study aims to elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium. The study included 2,197 male incident lung cancer cases and 2,295 controls from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2001. Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face interviews. Experts assessed exposure to 70 agents, and risk estimates were adjusted for smoking and occupational exposures. Occupation as a welder/flame cutter (prevalence controls: 3.7%) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.86) after adjustment for smoking and occupational exposures including asbestos. An odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.38) was found for welding fumes (prevalence controls: 22.8%), increasing to 1.38 for more than 25 exposure years (95% CI: 1.09, 1.75). A duration-response association was also observed for mild steel welding without chromium exposure. In this population, occupational exposure to welding fumes accounted for approximately 4% of lung cancer cases, to which both stainless and mild steel welding contributed equally. Given that welding remains a common task for many workers, exposure to welding fumes represents an important risk factor for lung cancer. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.
PubMed | University of Newcastle, Regional Authority of Public Health, Brown University, New York University and 42 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of epidemiology | Year: 2016
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). To our knowledge, low cigarette smoking (<10 cigarettes per day) has not been extensively investigated in fine categories or among never alcohol drinkers.We conducted a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 23 independent case-control studies including 19660 HNC cases and 25566 controls. After exclusion of subjects using other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, snuffed or chewed tobacco and straw cigarettes (tobacco product used in Brazil), as well as subjects smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day, 4093 HNC cases and 13416 controls were included in the analysis. The lifetime average frequency of cigarette consumption was categorized as follows: never cigarette users, >0-3, >3-5, >5-10 cigarettes per day.Smoking >0-3 cigarettes per day was associated with a 50% increased risk of HNC in the study population [odds ratio (OR)=1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.21, 1.90). Smoking >3-5 cigarettes per day was associated in each subgroup from OR=2.01 (95% CI: 1.22, 3.31) among never alcohol drinkers to OR=2.74 (95% CI: 2.01, 3.74) among women and in each cancer site, particularly laryngeal cancer (OR=3.48, 95% CI: 2.40, 5.05). However, the observed increased risk of HNC for low smoking frequency was not found among smokers with smoking duration shorter than 20 years.Our results suggest a public health message that low frequency of cigarette consumption contributes to the development of HNC. However, smoking duration seems to play at least an equal or a stronger role in the development of HNC.
PubMed | Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Idibell Lhospitalet Of Llobregat, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC, Cancer Institute WIA and 30 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, p = 6x10(-4)). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10(-3)) and LUSC (p = 9x10(-4)) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10(-48) and p = 3x10(-29) in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors.
Drimal M.,Matej Bel University |
Lewis C.,Industrial Economics Inc. |
Fabianova E.,Regional Authority of Public Health
Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010
Ambient air quality in and around the city of Ružomberok, located in northern Slovakia is influenced by a variety of malodorous reduced sulfur compounds in emissions from the pulp mill factory, which uses the kraft process. Reduced sulfur compounds are a group of inorganic and organic chemicals containing sulfur atoms in their lowest oxidation state (S2-), including hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and other sulfur compounds. We present results from a screening level human health exposure and risk assessment of these malodorous compounds in the Ružomberok area. Analyses are based on ambient air quality monitoring data collected by the pulp mill factory and the Slovak Ministry of the Environment Hydrometeorological Institute (HI). Pulp mill factory data include measurements of total reduced sulfur compounds (TRS) and hydrogen sulfide from the year 2002. HI provided continuous monitoring of ambient TRS in one station located in this area. Samples were collected at nine sites chosen based on evaluation of geographic, climatic and demographic factors, and screening level exposure and risk assessments were performed for five exposure localities. Screening level analyses include calculation of hazard indices for each locality based on average daily dose. In addition, recommendations for health risk management at the governmental, private, and municipal level are presented.
Polakova M.,Regional Authority of Public Health |
Krajcovicova Z.,Alexander Dubcek University, Trencin |
Melus V.,Alexander Dubcek University, Trencin |
Stefkovicova M.,Regional Authority of Public Health |
Sulcova M.,Slovak Medical University
Central European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012
Mandelic acid (MA) is an important metabolite of styrene. In humans, measurement of its concentration in urine provides an important assessment of the overall level of styrene exposure in workers of the reinforced plastic manufacturing industry. The aim of our study was to investigate in these workers the relationship between MA concentration and styrene exposure time and intensity as well as its dependence on work occupation. The concentration of MA in the urine samples of 35 employees was analyzed with HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Out of 35 workers, 11 performed laminating, 11 milling and finalizing, 6 laying-up and spraying-up, and 7 worked in background support. Urinal samples were obtained twice a day over the course of three weeks, at the beginning and the end of the work shift. We found a significant increase in MA concentrations during a work shift in all tested days (Wilcoxon test p<0.05). Employees working in elevated atmospheric concentrations of styrene (93.77-159.88 mg/m3) had significantly higher MA concentrations in urine compared to other groups at both the beginning and the end of the shift (Kruskal Wallis test p < 0.001) (p < 0.001). Only samples from laminating workers exceeded the biological limit of MA concentration (640 mg/L) at the end of the shift. Normalisation of MA concentration to body mass index (BMI, normal range: 21.7 ± 3.2 kg/m2) refined differences within groups (Kruskal-Wallis analysis p < 0.001). The accumulation of MA at the end of the work shift for measured time period was not significant for the measured time period (Friedman analysis p > 0.11). Our results confirmed that MA is a sensitive metabolic marker of styrene exposure without cumulative effect. However, normalization of MA concentrations to BMI can improve the accuracy of styrene exposure estimates in certain groups of employees.
Dado M.,Technical University In Zvolen |
Schwarz M.,Technical University In Zvolen |
Fric M.,Regional Authority of Public Health
Akustika | Year: 2012
This paper presents results of a comparative study of two measurement strategies for determination of workplace noise exposure. The goals of the study were measure A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level by using integrating-averaging sound level meter and personal sound exposure meter and to assess differences between task-based and full-shift methods. Noise survey was conducted in sawmill and statistical analysis of collected data was completed using Bland - Altman method. Results of this study indicate difference between measurement strategies in term of occupational noise exposure assessment.
Drimal M.,Matej Bel University |
Koppova K.,Regional Authority of Public Health |
Kloslova Z.,Regional Authority of Public Health |
Fabianova E.,Regional Authority of Public Health
Central European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010
The activities of the kraft pulp-mill in Ružomberok have great impact on ambient air quality in the town and the neighboring villages. The malodorous sulfur compounds adversely contribute to the overall emission profile. The reduced sulfur proportion forms the inorganic and organic compounds containing sulfur atoms in their lowest oxidation condition (S2-). The total sulfur proportion reduced includes hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and other sulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - as mentioned above - is of prime importance. The kraft pulp-mill has measured of hydrogen sulfide contained in ambient air since 2002. The environmental samples were collected in 7 localities in all their selection based on the geographic, climatic and demographic factors. Four exposure localities in the Ružomberok neighborhood, have been defined by the specified criteria. Exposure assessment was made for each exposure locality by determination of the average daily inhalation dose. The average concentration of H2S reached 5.8 μg.m-3 in the most polluted locality (Černová, 2003). To complete the health risk assessment, the standard risk characterization procedure was made by the Hazard Quotient (HQ) calculation for hydrogen sulfide exposure. The highest level of HQ, almost 7, was identified in the event of a worst case exposure scenario (using the 95% concentrations), as for exposure group C. Statistically significant decrease of reported H2S levels was noted during the entire measurement period (-0.25/year, p<0.001).
Dluholucky S.,Slovak Medical University |
Dluholucky S.,Children Faculty Hospital |
Frcova B.,Slovak Medical University |
Hruba F.,Regional Authority of Public Health
Neuroendocrinology Letters | Year: 2013
OBJECTIVE: The broad spectrum of extraosseal functions of vitamin D has recently been investigated. Although majority of recent studies have documented its hypotensive effect, some older studies warrant the risk of development the juvenile hypertension namely after pulse-fortified D vitamin supplementation during infancy. The aim of this study was to compare of the blood pressure in 13 year old groups of adolescents to the mode of D vitamin supplementation during their infancy. METHODS: Study group represent 1138 thirteen year old adolescents in complex health care of 21 primary care pediatricians (PCPs). This group was divided into three subgroups according their mode of D vitamin supplementation in infancy. 100 children were given the continuous daily supplementation of AD vitamin 200-400 IU /day - "regular subgroup 0", 933 children were given by bolus doses of D vitamin forte 450 000 IU every three months during first year of life - "fortified subgroup 2", and 105 children given by bolus doses of D vitamin during winter, and continuous daily AD drops during summer - "mixed subgroup 1". D vitamin supplementation was done approximately 13 years before blood pressure study. RESULTS: The mean systolic blood pressure was 110 mmHg, and mean diastolic one was 70 mmHg in all subgroups, regardless the mode of vitamin D supplementation. There were no statistic differences among subgroups, between girls/ boys, blood pressure levels were in normal limit. Although calculated daily doses of D2 vitamin during infancy exceeded RDA (200-400 IU) four to ten time, no difference in morbidity was found, concerning various chronic diseases (allergy, cardiovascular, renal, etc.). These results are in full accordance to recent knowledge of higher requirement and safety limit during vitamin D application. CONCLUSION: The mode of D vitamin prophylaxis during infancy (pulse or daily application) has no influence to blood pressure level in early adolescence. No adverse effects have been found despite that the calculated daily dose was exceeded from three to ten times the recommended daily allowance. © 2013 Neuroendocrinology Letters.
PubMed | National Reference Center for Poliomyelitis, Regional Authority of Public Health, Slovak Medical University, Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic and National Transplant Organization
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Central European journal of public health | Year: 2017
Enteroviruses (EVs) infections occur worldwide. Although, infections by these viruses are often asymptomatic and go unnoticed, they can be shed in stool for several weeks. The EVs re associated with sporadic outbreaks and a wide range of clinical symptoms, occasionally accompanied with fatal consequences. Presently in the Slovak Republic (SR) recreational waters are tested only for bacterial indicators. Our aim was to monitor EVs in recreational waters. Water samples were collected during the years 2012-2014 from different recreational natural lakes in Central and West regions of SR. The samples were concentrated by centrifugation using the two-phase separation method recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) used for EVs surveillance in the treated sewage waste water. Each of the two phases collected from the samples was analysed by polymerase chain reaction for detection of EVs and primary sequencing was done. Our study demonstrated presence of EVs in three localities consecutively for three years, indicating a probability of constant local source of faecal contamination. This is the first monitoring report on the occurrence of EVs in the natural recreational waters in SR.
PubMed | International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC, Regional Authority of Public Health, Masaryk University, Charles University and Palacky University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016
The utility of KRAS mutations in plasma circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples as non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of pancreatic cancer has never been evaluated in a large case-control series. We applied a KRAS amplicon-based deep sequencing strategy combined with analytical pipeline specifically designed for the detection of low-abundance mutations to screen plasma samples of 437 pancreatic cancer cases, 141 chronic pancreatitis subjects, and 394 healthy controls. We detected mutations in 21.1% (N=92) of cases, of whom 82 (89.1%) carried at least one mutation at hotspot codons 12, 13 or 61, with mutant allelic fractions from 0.08% to 79%. Advanced stages were associated with an increased proportion of detection, with KRAS cfDNA mutations detected in 10.3%, 17,5% and 33.3% of cases with local, regional and systemic stages, respectively. We also detected KRAS cfDNA mutations in 3.7% (N=14) of healthy controls and in 4.3% (N=6) of subjects with chronic pancreatitis, but at significantly lower allelic fractions than in cases. Combining cfDNA KRAS mutations and CA19-9 plasma levels on a limited set of case-control samples did not improve the overall performance of the biomarkers as compared to CA19-9 alone. Whether the limited sensitivity and specificity observed in our series of KRAS mutations in plasma cfDNA as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer detection are attributable to methodological limitations or to the biology of cfDNA should be further assessed in large case-control series.