Time filter

Source Type

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Pizzuto M.S.,viale dellUniversita 10 | De Benedictis P.,viale dellUniversita 10 | Maniero S.,viale dellUniversita 10 | Toson M.,viale dellUniversita 10 | And 3 more authors.

The increasing demand for avian influenza diagnostic reagents worldwide, has included requests for significant supplies of product to developing countries. Difficulties in dispatching to remote areas and tropical countries are a major concern to suppliers, international organisations and donors as delays in forwarding parcels often result in storage at non-optimal or inadequate temperatures results in loss in titre and thus wastage of resources. In this study we demonstrate that the heat stability of avian influenza haemagglutination inhibition antigens of the H5, H7 and H9 subtype following 14 days of exposure to 37 °C and 45 °C is significantly increased by adding D-(+)-Trehalose to the freshly prepared antigen. Increased stability was detected both for freeze-dried antigens over an extended period of 6 months and also in heat exposed antigens that were then stored at +4. C for up to 35 days post reconstitution. © 2011 The International Association for Biologicals. Source

Olwande P.O.,P.O. Box 842 50204 | Ogara W.O.,University of Nairobi | Okuthe S.O.,Regional Animal Health Center | Muchemi G.,University of Nairobi | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production

The present study was conducted to assess the performance of indigenous chickens under extensive system in southern Nyanza, Kenya. The study was carried out in two phases in Komolorume and Kawere villages in Rongo and Rachuonyo districts, respectively. The first phase was a cross-sectional study in 81 farms selected by cluster sampling to get the overview of the indigenous chicken production. A four-month prospective longitudinal study in 60 farms randomly selected from the previous 81 farms followed. Mean flock sizes per household were 20 and 18 birds in Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. Overall mean flock size was 19 birds ranging from 1 to 64. The mean clutch size, egg weight and hatchability were 12 eggs, 48 g and 81% respectively in Komolorume and 10 eggs, 45 g and 70%, respectively, in Kawere. The chick survival rates to the age of eight weeks were 13% and 10% in Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. Mean live weights for cocks and hens were 2096 g and 1599 g in Komolorume and 2071 g and 1482 g in Kawere, respectively. The mean household cock to hen ratio was 2:5 and 2:4 for Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. The mean chick to grower to adult ratio per household was 8: 6:6 in Komolorume and 8:4:6 in Kawere. Clutch sizes and hatchability rates were significantly higher in Komolorume village (P < 0.5). The productivity of the indigenous chickens was shown to be low compared to that of the improved chickens in other parts of the world. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Henning J.,University of Queensland | Henning K.A.,University of Queensland | Long N.T.,Regional Animal Health Center | Ha N.T.,Regional Animal Health Center | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production

Ducks are considered to play a major role in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Viet Nam, but detailed information on their management is limited. We distinguished two different systems (1) stationary duck flocks that are not commonly driven to rice fields beyond village boundaries and that are confined overnight on farms and (2) moving duck flocks that are intentionally driven to rice fields beyond village boundaries, that are not returning to home farms for extended periods and that are housed overnight in temporary enclosures in rice paddies. A total of 115 stationary and 22 moving flock farmers were interviewed in 2007 in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam. Moving duck flocks are larger than stationary flocks, which is indicative of their more commercial production. Moving flock farmers apparently are more aware of HPAI risks than stationary flock farmers, as their flocks are more likely fully vaccinated and have less contact with chickens during scavenging. On the other hand, the spread of HPAI virus between birds might be promoted by moving duck flocks as they repeatedly use transport vehicles and numerous rice paddies for scavenging and are often visited by hatchery owners in the field for purchasing duck eggs. In addition, long distances travelled by moving duck flocks might also result in widespread dissemination of HPAI virus. Further studies are necessary to describe HPAI prevalence and travel patterns of moving duck flocks and to explore the moving duck flock network in detail. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Henning J.,University of Queensland | Henning K.A.,University of Queensland | Morton J.M.,University of Queensland | Long N.T.,Regional Animal Health Center | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Scavenging ducks are thought to play an important role in the maintenance and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among domesticated and wild bird populations in South East Asia, but detailed field epidemiological results describing the infection status of domestic ducks and in-contact chickens have not been published. We conducted a longitudinal study, monitoring ducks and in-contact chickens in 80 flocks in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam with bi-monthly testing from May 2007 until May 2008. Because H5 vaccination campaigns are conducted at regular intervals in poultry flocks in Viet Nam, both unvaccinated sentinel and H5 vaccinates were monitored. On each farm, a total of 10 birds were selected: 7 ducks (4 unvaccinated and 3 vaccinated) and 3 chickens (2 unvaccinated and 1 vaccinated) that were in close contact with the ducks. Blood samples were tested for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition test, with H5 antibody titers ≥24 considered to indicate past exposure to H5 field or vaccine virus. Titers of vaccinated birds were analyzed for samples collected more than 3 weeks post-vaccination. Pooled oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were assessed for H5 viral RNA using real-time PCR. Bird- and flock-level prevalences were estimated accounting for sampling fractions and clustering under the multi-stage sampling design with birds being sampled within flocks within villages in four different provinces.In total, serum and swab samples from 5409 birds-samplings were analyzed. Bird-level seroprevalence was 17.5% (95% CI: 14.1, 20.9) amongst unvaccinated ducks and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.4, 14.4) amongst unvaccinated in-contact chickens. Flock-level seroprevalence (proportion of flock-visits with at least one unvaccinated bird test positive) was 42.6% (95% CI: 38.0, 47.2) for ducks and 19.0% (95% CI: 13.6, 24.4) for chickens. Only 54.3% (95% CI: 39.2, 69.3) of vaccinated ducks and 55.5% (95% CI: 46.8, 64.2) of vaccinated in-contact chickens had H5 antibodies at more than 3 weeks post-vaccination. At about 40% and 48% of flock-visits, less than 50% of sampled vaccinated ducks and chickens, respectively, had positive titers.The flock-level virus prevalence (proportion of flocks with at least one bird positive for H5 virus of the vaccinated and unvaccinated birds tested) was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.0, 2.1). No HPAI outbreaks or mortality suspected to be due to HPAI occurred in study flocks during the observation period. Our results indicate that a substantial proportion of ducks and in-contact chickens were exposed to H5 virus during the study period. In the face of this widespread exposure to H5 virus, and despite only moderate proportions of birds developing positive titers post-vaccination, flocks were not affected by HPAI outbreaks during our study period. The higher bird-level seroprevalence in ducks compared to in-contact chickens may be due to greater durations of antibody persistence in ducks or greater rates of H5 virus exposure. These findings indicate that ducks are potentially an important source of H5 virus for other bird species. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Discover hidden collaborations