Rao I.V.Y.R.,Regional Agricultural Research Station
International Sugar Journal | Year: 2012
The present study attempts to reveal the paradox faced by sugar factories in Andhra Pradesh receiving reduced cane supply following an increase in payment to growers for their cane in the previous year. The secondary data collected for the period 1990-91 to 2009-10 were on variables like jaggery prices, sugarcane prices, sugar prices, sugarcane crushed and sugarcane acreage for factories under study. Cobb-Douglas type of production function, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Marginal Value of Productivity (MVP) were employed. The paradoxical situation arises for the following reason. An increase in price by 1% to cane growers by sugar factories results in expansion in acreage for cane for sugar production in mills. This in turn results in the reduction of acreage from which cane will be diverted to jaggery production. Since this would trigger an increase in jaggery prices by 1.69%, more cane will be diverted for this purpose. The consequence being reduced cane supply to mills. Effectively, changes in jaggery prices have greater impact than cane prices. The central assumption here is that the demand for jaggery is price inelastic.
Meriga B.,Sri Venkateswara University |
Mopuri R.,Sri Venkateswara University |
MuraliKrishna T.,Regional Agricultural Research Station
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012
Objective: To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum (A. sativum). Methods: Dried bulbs of A. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods: Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of 81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of 1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was 100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2'-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity (80%-90% of the standard). Conclusions: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy of A. sativum against S. litura, a polyphagous insect. © 2012 Hainan Medical College.
Waghmode B.D.,Regional Agricultural Research Station |
Mehta H.D.,Navsari Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2011
The availability of stable cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoring system is vital for commercial exploitation of heterosis in rice. Inheritance study using four effective fertility restorers (BL-184-AR, IR-54742-22- 19-3, NVSR-20 and Pusa Sugandha-5) and five diverse cytosterile sources (KJTCMS-6A-WA, RTN 2A-ARC, RTN 3A-Mutant of IR 62829B, RTN 13A-Gambiaca and RTN 17ADissi), their F 1, F 2 and BC 1 populations revealed that the fertility restoration was governed by two independent genes, one of which appeared to be stronger in action than other. Crosses KJTCMS-6A X IR-54742-22-19-3, RTN- 2A X BL-184-AR and RTN-2A X NVSR-20, RTN-3A X BL- 184-AR and RTN-13A X NVSR-20, showed segregating ratio of 12 (fertile) : 3 (partially fertile + partially sterile): 1 (completely sterile plants) and 2 (fertile) : 1 (partial sterile/ fertile) : 1 (sterile) in F 2 and BC 1 generations respectively, for pollen and spikelet fertility indicating two major genes with dominant epistasis. In case of crosses KJTCMS-6A X BL-184-AR and KJTCMS-6A X NVSR-20, RTN-13A X BL-184-AR, RTN-17A X BL-184-AR segregated in the ratio of 9:6:1 and 1:2:1 in F 2 and BC 1 generations respectively, for pollen and spikelet fertility indicating two major genes with epistasis and incomplete dominance. While crosses, KJTCMS-6A X Pusa Sugandha-5, RTN-2A X IR-54742-22-19-3 and RTN-2A X Pusa Sugandha-5, RTN-3A X IR-54742- 22-19-3, RTN-3A X Pusa Sugandha-5 and RTN-3A X NVSR- 20, RTN-13A X IR-54742-22-19-3, RTN-13A X Pusa Sugandha-5 and RTN-17A X IR-54742-22-19-3, RTN-17A X Pusa Sugandha-5, RTN-17A X NVSR-20, exhibited the restoration pattern fitted well in a segregation ratio of 9:3:4 and 1:1:2 in F 2 and BC 1 generations respectively, for pollen and spikelet fertility displaying an epistasis with recessive interaction. The mode of action of these genes were different in different restorer combinations with five different sources of cytoplasmic genetic male sterility. Change in fertility restoration by same restorer with CMS line of same source and of different source could either due to cytoplasmic genetic interactions of CMS line and fertility restoring genes or may be affected by modifier genes.
Thirumala Rao V.,Regional Agricultural Research Station
Legume Research | Year: 2016
Groundnut yield in rain fed areas has been limited by drought stress because pod yield and other growth parameters have been severely affected. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic variability, character association and path analysis between yield and its contributing traits in 30 groundnut genotypes under drought. Analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant differences among genotypes for all characters studied. The magnitude of PCV and GCV was moderate to high for number of pods per plant, dry haulm yield, kernel yield, plant height and dry pod yield. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for kernel yield, plant height, dry pod yield, and hundred kernel weight indicating the role of additive gene in expressing these traits. Dry pod yield was significant positively correlated with kernel yield, no of pods per plant, hundred kernel weight and SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR). Path coefficient analysis indicated that number of pods per plant and hundred kernel weight were essential traits to be considered for realizing the improvement in yield. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.
Ramanjaneyulu A.V.,Regional Agricultural Research Station |
Gouri Shankar V.,Regional Agricultural Research Station |
Neelima T.L.,Agricultural Polytechnic ANGRAU |
Shashibhusahn D.,Regional Agricultural Research Station
Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2014
Ten popular low land rice genotypes were evaluated in 2007, 2008, and 2009 for variability, genetic divergence, stability and suitability under aerobic conditions on Alfisols. Results showed low variability in some of the growth and yield attributes like plant height, tillers/plant, spikelet length and harvest index, whereas high heritability (broad sense) estimates were observed for quantitative characters such as 1000-grain weight and grain yield. There was a significant and positive correlation of grain yield with number of tillers/plant (1.11), number of productive tillers/plant (0.99), number of grains/spikelet (0.84) and spikelet length (0.59), indicating that grain yield and these traits have the same physiological basis for expression. The pattern of constellations into 4 clusters indicated the existence of a significant amount of variability. The maximum intra-cluster distance (D: 0.773) was observed in cluster III and selection with this cluster may thus be useful. The yield attribute 1000-grain weight exhibited the maximum contribution to total genetic divergence (57.78%), followed by grain yield (15.56%), number of grains/spikelet (11.11%), straw yield (6.67%) and spikelet length (4.44%). On the other hand, the traits such as tillers/plant and harvest index failed to contribute toward genetic divergence. The stability analysis revealed that variety JGL-11727 consistently showed the highest agronomic performance. © Society for the Advancement of Breeding Research in Asia and Oceania (SABRAO) 2014.