Vastra Gotaland Region

Sweden

Vastra Gotaland Region

Sweden
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Frank C.,Robert Koch Institute | Werber D.,Robert Koch Institute | Cramer J.P.,University of Hamburg | Askar M.,Robert Koch Institute | And 16 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: We describe an outbreak of gastroenteritis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Germany in May, June, and July, 2011. The consumption of sprouts was identified as the most likely vehicle of infection. METHODS: We analyzed data from reports in Germany of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli gastroenteritis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome and clinical information on patients presenting to Hamburg University Medical Center (HUMC). An outbreak case was defined as a reported case of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome or of gastroenteritis in a patient infected by Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli, serogroup O104 or serogroup unknown, with an onset of disease during the period from May 1 through July 4, 2011, in Germany. RESULTS: A total of 3816 cases (including 54 deaths) were reported in Germany, 845 of which (22%) involved the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The outbreak was centered in northern Germany and peaked around May 21 to 22. Most of the patients in whom the hemolytic-uremic syndrome developed were adults (88%; median age, 42 years), and women were overrepresented (68%). The estimated median incubation period was 8 days, with a median of 5 days from the onset of diarrhea to the development of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Among 59 patients prospectively followed at HUMC, the hemolytic-uremic syndrome developed in 12 (20%), with no significant differences according to sex or reported initial symptoms and signs. The outbreak strain was typed as an enteroaggregative Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4, producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. CONCLUSIONS: In this outbreak, caused by an unusual E. coli strain, cases of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome occurred predominantly in adults, with a preponderance of cases occurring in women. The hemolytic-uremic syndrome developed in more than 20% of the identified cases. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society.


PubMed | Vastra Gotaland Region, Monitoring and Evaluation, Microbiology and., Clinical Microbiology and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2016

We describe an imported case of Lassa fever with both encephalopathy and bilateral sensorineural hearing deficit. Absence of fever during hospitalization, initially nonspecific symptoms, and onset of hearing deficit in a late stage of disease probably contributed to delayed diagnosis (14 days after admittance to hospital). The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of Lassa fever is poorly understood and no specific treatment was given. A total of 118 personnel had close contact with the patient, but no secondary cases occurred. This case highlights the importance of considering Lassa fever as a differential diagnosis in patients with recent travel to endemic areas.


Hellmer M.,Gothenburg University | Paxeus N.,Gryaab AB | Magnius L.,Karolinska Institutet | Enache L.,Gryaab AB | And 5 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


Borges B.C.D.,Potiguar University | Gurgel M.V.,University of Pernambuco | Figueiroa A.F.A.,University of Pernambuco | Vilela A.R.R.C.,University of Pernambuco | And 3 more authors.
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica | Year: 2013

Aim. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-heated composite restoratives on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Methods. The following materials were tested: a microhybrid composite restorative (Filtek Z250), two nanofilled composite restoratives (Filtek Z350 and NT Premium), a nanohybrid composite restorative (Brilliant) and a conventional orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT). All materials were stored for 1 h in the incubator either at 25°C (room temperature simulation) or 60°C before bonding 100 orthodontic brackets on bovine lower incisors (n = 10). One Coat Bond SL and Transbond XT were used to bond the composite restoratives and the Transbond XT adhesive paste, respectively. After storage in distilled water for 24 h, the brackets were subjected to SBS test at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until bracket debonding. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was assigned to the fractured specimens. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and the Tukey post-hoc test (p < 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare ARI scores between the groups (p < 0.05). Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the materials at room temperature. Samples bonded with pre-heated materials showed a statistically higher SBS than those bonded with room temperature materials. Samples bonded with the pre-heated orthodontic adhesive showed the highest SBS among all the pre-heated materials. All preheated composite restoratives produced an SBS mean higher than that of Transbond XT stored at room temperature. Conclusion. The use of pre-heated composite restoratives and orthodontic adhesives might be an alternative approach to bond orthodontic brackets. © 2013 Informa Healthcare.


PubMed | Gryaab AB, Karolinska Institutet, Gothenburg University and Vastra Gotaland Region
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2014

Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care.


Christenson K.,Gothenburg University | Bjorkman L.,Gothenburg University | Davidsson L.,Gothenburg University | Karlsson A.,Gothenburg University | And 3 more authors.
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

A wealth of knowledge on the life and death of human neutrophils has been obtained by the in vitro study of isolated cells derived from peripheral blood. However, neutrophils are of main importance, physiologically as well as pathologically, after they have left circulation and transmigrated to extravascular tissues. The journey from blood to tissue is complex and eventful, and tissue neutrophils are in many aspects distinct from the cells left in circulation. Here we describe how to obtain human tissue neutrophils in a controlled experimental setting from aseptic skin lesions created by the application of negative pressure. One protocol enables the direct analysis of the blister content, infiltrating leukocytes as well as exudate fluid, and is a simple method to follow multiple parameters of aseptic inflammation in vivo. Also described is the skin chamber technique, a method based on denuded skin blisters which are subsequently covered by collection chambers filled with autologous serum. Although slightly more artificial as compared to analysis of the blister content directly, the cellular yield of this skin chamber method is sufficient to perform a large number of functional analyses of in vivo transmigrated cells. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Lindhusen-Lindhe E.,Vastra Gotaland Region | Dotevall L.,Vastra Gotaland Region | Berglund M.,Vastra Gotaland Region
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2012

In March 2012 a 68-year-old woman was diagnosed with laryngeal diphtheria in a hospital in Västra Götaland Region, Sweden. Six days before symptom onset she had returned from a trip to western Africa where she had travelled accompanied by her husband. During the investigation, the 76-year-old husband was diagnosed with cutaneous diphtheria. Both patients were incompletely vaccinated against diphtheria.


Nenonen N.P.,Sahlgrenska Academy | Hannoun C.,Sahlgrenska Academy | Larsson C.U.,Vastra Gotaland Region | Bergstrom T.,Sahlgrenska Academy
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Marked norovirus (NoV) diversity was detected in patient samples from a large community outbreak of gastroenteritis with waterborne epidemiology affecting approximately 2,400 people. NoV was detected in 33 of 50 patient samples examined by groupspecific real-time reverse transcription-PCR. NoV genotype I (GI) strains predominated in 31 patients, with mixed GI infections occurring in 5 of these patients. Sequence analysis of RNA-dependent polymerase-N/S capsid-coding regions (~900 nucleotides in length) confirmed the dominance of the GI strains (n=36). Strains of NoV GI.4 (n=21) and GI.7 (n=9) were identified, but six strains required full capsid amino acid analyses (530 to 550 amino acids) based on control sequencing of cloned amplicons before the virus genotype could be determined. Three strains were assigned to a new NoV GI genotype, proposed as GI.9, based on capsid amino acid analyses showing 26% dissimilarity from the established genotypes GI.1 to GI.8. Three other strains grouped in a sub-branch of GI.3 with 13 to 15% amino acid dissimilarity to GI.3 GenBank reference strains. Phylogenetic analysis (2.1 kb) of 10 representative strains confirmed these genotype clusters. Strains of NoV GII.4 (n=1), NoV GII.6 (n=2), sapovirus GII.2 (n=1), rotavirus (n=3), adenovirus (n=1), and Campylobacter spp. (n=2) were detected as single infections or as mixtures with NoV GI. Marked NoV GI diversity detected in patients was consistent with epidemiologic evidence of waterborne NoV infections, suggesting human fecal contamination of the water supply. Recognition of NoV diversity in a cluster of patients provided a useful warning marker of waterborne contamination in the Lilla Edet outbreak. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

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