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Bocherens H.,University of Tübingen | Drucker D.G.,University of Tübingen | Bridault A.,21 Allee Of Luniversite | Conard N.J.,University of Tübingen | And 10 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

The prey choice of extinct cave lions Panthera spelaea was determined using bone collagen isotopic signatures in the Belgian Ardennes and the Swabian Jura between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago as well as in the Late-glacial of the northwestern Alp foreland and of the Paris Basin. More than 370 specimens of large carnivorous and herbivorous mammals from 25 sites coeval with cave lion were analyzed. The isotopic results point to an individualistic prey choice for cave lions, with some individuals more oriented on reindeer and others on young cave bears. The isotopic signatures and therefore dietary choice of cave lions did not overlap with those of cave hyenas, indicating competitive exclusion between the large predators. The most recent western European cave lions seem to have been consuming mainly reindeer until the local extirpation of this prey species, which coincides chronologically with their own extinction. This restricted prey choice may be involved in the extinction of this large predator in Western Europe. © 2011.


Kadereit A.,University of Heidelberg | Kind C.-J.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart | Wagner G.A.,University of Heidelberg
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2013

The loess section of Nussloch in southwestern Germany is a key profile for the reconstruction of the terrestrial palaeo-environment of central Europe at the time of the Last Glacial and Interglacial. Recently, the significance of the site for palaeo-environmental and geoarchaeological research increased additionally, with the discovery of unique Palaeolithic cultural remains from anatomically and culturally modern humans that invaded southwestern Germany during the Weichselian (Würmian) Pleniglacial period. At Nussloch, a chrono-stratigraphical key position is taken by a Middle Pleniglacial Cambisol remain which, under the designation Lohne Soil, serves as an important pedostratigraphic marker horizon for the greater area. Repeatedly, Greenland interstadial (GIS) 8 was suggested as a likely period of soil formation for the Lohne Soil. This interpretation is yet not justified on the basis of published chronometric data. Critical assessment of the data points to a later period of soil formation, likely during GIS7 to GIS5. This conclusion is supported by a new set of radiocarbon ages for the Nussloch site which are presented here for the first time. Consequences of a revised chronology for correlations of Pleniglacial Cryosols below and above the Lohne Soil with Greenland interstadials are discussed. The implications are important for European loess research as the Nussloch section serves as a reference base for loess sections throughout Europe. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Drucker D.G.,University of Tübingen | Kind C.-J.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart | Stephan E.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

The Late-glacial and early Holocene periods are characterized by significant climatic and environmental changes that result in a global warming. In this context, typical glacial species such as reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were extirpated from the southern regions of western Europe following different timing according to the geographical location. A new direct radiocarbon date was performed on a reindeer metatarsus from the Mesolithic site of Rottenburg-Siebenlinden in the Swabian Jura. The result (9225 ± 35 BP; 10,270-10,500 cal BP) confirmed the survival of this species during the early Holocene in southwestern (SW) Germany. Collagen 13C and 15N abundances (δ13Ccoll and δ15Ncoll) were measured on this Holocene reindeer and on Late-glacial reindeer from Magdalenian sites - Petersfels, Schussenquelle, Felsställe and Kesslerloch - of the same region to investigate their diet and environment. During the first part of the Late-glacial (ca. 16.6-14 ka cal BP), the δ13Ccoll values of the SW Germany reindeer were slightly lower than those found in reindeer from Stellmoor and Meiendorf sites in northern Germany, probably as a result of lower lichen consumption and higher humidity. Lower δ15Ncoll values in SW Germany reindeer compared to southwestern France could be linked to less advanced soil maturation as the inheritance of higher permafrost intensity linked to harsher climatic conditions during the Late-Glacial Maximum. In SW Germany, the early Holocene reindeer had a higher δ15Ncoll value (4‰) than those of its Late-glacial counterparts (1.2-3.3‰), which would reflect the expected increase in 15N abundances of soils and plants with higher temperature. However, relatively high δ15N values (ca. 4-5‰) were also found in the reindeer of southwestern England as early as during the Younger Dryas, the last cold stadial preceding the early Holocene. In contrast, northern and western Germany reindeer exhibited increasing δ13Ccoll values but stable δ15Ncoll values during the Younger Dryas compared to the previous Bölling/Alleröd interstadial. This could indicate a slower response in 15Ncoll than in 13Ccoll abundances of ancient reindeer to climatic changes. Finally, the reindeer of southern England and SW Germany survived the Younger Dryas/early Holocene transition in a relatively open landscape as confirmed by the δ13Ccoll values measured on coeval deer. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Duering A.,University of Oxford | Wahl J.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart
Anthropologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2014

The virtual experiments presented below reveal the counterintuitive archaeological demography of the Neolithic mass grave of Talheim and underline the importance of distinguishing between the demographic structures of living and dead populations, as well as between attritional and catastrophic mortality patterns. We utilise a new agent-based modelling approach called Population & Cemetery Simulator based on the NetLogo programming language and the Behaviour Composer of the modelling4all project, which allows us to extrapolate from dead to living populations and vice versa. Contrary to received opinion, we argue that the population of the Neolithic mass grave holds specific demographic information only, as it represents a pure catastrophic mortality pattern, i.e. a living population at a single point in time rather than the population of a conventional cemetery. The first experiments illustrate why the published demographic data (e.g. mortality, life expectancy, mean age at death) is misleading. It is illogical to utilise mortality tables devised for conventional (attritional) cemeteries in the case of living populations. Modelled populations with the published mortality rates of the massacre site are, furthermore, unable to stand up to plausible human demographic circumstances. In the second part, we evaluate the actual demographic information content of the Talheim sample. Comparative modelling illustrates that the Talheim population appears to be similar to possible living populations based on the mortuary record of Schwetzingen, an isochronal site of the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK), and Bärenthal, a site which dates back to the early medieval period (7th to 10th centuries). It is therefore very likely that the Talheim population is a representative sample of a living population in the LBK and might even represent a massacred village community in its entirety. © 2014 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.


PubMed | University of Oxford and Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht uber die biologisch-anthropologische Literatur | Year: 2015

The virtual experiments presented below reveal the counterintuitive archaeological demography of the Neolithic mass grave of Talheim and underline the importance of distinguishing between the demographic structures of living and dead populations, as well as between attritional and catastrophic mortality patterns. We utilise a new agent-based modelling approach called Population & Cemetery Simulator based on the NetLogo programming language and the Behaviour Composer of the modelling4all project, which allows us to extrapolate from dead to living populations and vice versa. Contrary to received opinion, we argue that the population of the Neolithic mass grave holds specific demographic information only, as it represents a pure catastrophic mortality pattern, i.e. a living population at a single point in time rather than the population of a conventional cemetery. The first experiments illustrate why the published demographic data (e.g. mortality, life expectancy, mean age at death) is misleading. It is illogical to utilise mortality tables devised for conventional (attritional) cemeteries in the case of living populations. Modelled populations with the published mortality rates of the massacre site are, furthermore, unable to stand up to plausible human demographic circumstances. In the second part, we evaluate the actual demographic information content of the Talheim sample. Comparative modelling illustrates that the Talheim population appears to be similar to possible living populations based on the mortuary record of Schwetzingen, an isochronal site of the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK), and Brenthal, a site which dates back to the early medieval period (7th to 10th centuries). It is therefore very likely that the Talheim population is a representative sample of a living population in the LBK and might even represent a massacred village community in its entirety.


Kuhn M.,University of Basel | Maier U.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart | Herbig C.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Ismail-Meyer K.,University of Basel | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Archaeology | Year: 2013

There has been evidence of dung in lakeside and moorland settlements since the beginning of wetland archaeology in the 19th century. While evidence has been found for the easily discernible faecal pellets of sheep and goats, recognition of cattle dung has proven to be considerably more difficult. In this study, we give an overview of evidence for dung remains in prehistoric wetland settlements in Germany, Switzerland and eastern France. Various methods for the analysis of uncharred dung remains are reviewed-analyses of plant macro-and microremains, micromorphology and palaeoparasitology-and are applied to two late Neolithic sites in Germany, Alleshausen-Täschenwiesen and Alleshausen-Grundwiesen. It will be shown that at Alleshausen-Täschenwiesen small ruminants were penned during the whole winter and fed on leaf hay unlike Alleshausen-Grundwiesen, where cattle browsed/grazed in the open during the day and were herded into the settlement during the night-both in summer and in winter. © 2013 Association for Environmental Archaeology.


Gehlen C.,TU Munich | Osterminski K.,TU Munich | Weirich T.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart
Structural Concrete | Year: 2016

This paper presents the results of the corrosion fatigue behaviour of profiled reinforcing steel bars. Cyclically loaded rebar was simultaneously exposed to different corrosive environments – moderate to severe corrosive environments simulating XC or XD/XS exposure. Corrosion was configured naturally without any external polarization. Rebar was exposed to the corrosive solutions either directly or, when embedded in concrete, indirectly. In this latter case, corrosive agents penetrated towards the steel surface through an open crack. Low frequency was applied to enable extended corrosion periods. The potential drop method was utilized to detect and quantify the crack initiation and crack growth of the rebar. Using this method it was possible to determine the ratios between the number of cycles to crack initiation and the cycles to failure. Based on this method, the Nini/NF ratios were almost always between 0.8 and 0.9 – values that are similar to ratios determined for rebar tested in air (reference). This indicates that the fatigue life of rebar in carbonated concrete or concrete containing chloride is strongly dependent on crack initiation and less on crack growth. The S-N curves derived from the corrosion fatigue tests deviate significantly from the curve that was measured during the reference fatigue tests (tests in air). The S-N curves of rebar tested under corrosion fatigue load were linear, with a slope that was much steeper than the slope of the reference rebar tested in air. Copyright © 2016 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin


Von Der Osten-Woldenburg H.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart | Eberth C.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart
The Leading Edge | Year: 2015

Approximately 40 km from Stuttgart, Germany, a singular mound 50 m wide rises about 4.2 m above the surrounding terrain. It is assumed that it could be a burial mound from the Early Iron Age Hallstatt period (approximately 800 to 450 b.c.). Furthermore, it is supposed that a castle tower or keep was erected during the early Middle Ages. With the help of three geophysical methods (geomagnetic mapping, ground-penetrating radar, and electromagnetic-induction measuring), it was hoped to prove that the mound was indeed a Celtic burial mound or a Medieval keep, which should be registered as a listed site. In more than unfavorable conditions (at times there were severe snowfalls, and otherwise almost constant rain), measurements were undertaken during the winter of 2013. It could be proved that the mound is indeed a burial mound. In addition, the centrally positioned burial chamber was located, and the positions of two excavations from 1824 were recorded.


Maier U.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart | Schlichtherle H.,Regierungsprasidium Stuttgart
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2011

At present there are substantial amounts of archaeological and archaeobotanical data from the Late Neolithic wetland settlements of southern Germany on the oil and fibre plant flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). This is the result of 30 years of intensive excavations and research in 53 settlement areas. This article, on the one hand, will present the significance of flax remains, products made of flax and the inventory of relevant tools for evidence of and reconstruction of the flax production processes. On the other hand, based on the quantitative analysis of flax remains, the changing significance of this important cultivated plant during the course of the Late Neolithic will be demonstrated. From this it will be evident that textile production and in particular flax processing were part of a decisive upheaval in cultural development that initiated the transition to the middle phase of the Late Neolithic in the fields of agriculture and technology. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


An area of all together 480 m2 of the Mesolithic site Siebenlinden 3-5 was excavated between 1993 and 1995 as well as between 2001 and 2004. Four layers with finds dating to the middle to younger Mesolithic were discovered. Horizon II is the result of a larger summer or autumn camp. Different workplaces which were used simultaneously are identified. Horizon III can also be interpreted as an intensively used main camp established for a longer period. It is possible to differentiate between workplaces, presumed living areas and side workplaces. One dwelling unit always consists of one of the workplaces, one of the living areas and one or two side workplaces. In contrast to this the find scatters of horizons IIIo and IV are of fundamentally different character. They possess less finds by far and belong to camps of shorter permanence having been built for various purposes, but mainly for the requisition of food. The use of stone artefacts in horizon IV shows that in two cases two of the find concentrations indicate two contemporary living areas. The differences of the camp shapes originate in the different uses of the settlement types of differing structures. However, between the early and late Mesolithic a distinctive change seems to have taken place in the social structure.

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