Regierungsprasidium Giessen

Wetzlar, Germany

Regierungsprasidium Giessen

Wetzlar, Germany
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Wichern A.,Lely Deutschland GmbH | Reinecke F.,Regierungsprasidium Giessen | Herd D.,Lely Deutschland GmbH
Praktische Tierarzt | Year: 2016

Due to increasing automation of the milking process, vets need to have special skills for advisory service and monitoring of udder health on farms with robotic milking systems. The fact that roughly 60 cows are milked 2.5 times daily by one milking unit emphasizes the relevance of an optimal hygiene and functionality of the milking equipment for the udder health. During the milking process critical control points exist and need to be checked. First of all, behavior and hygiene of the cow itself while entering the milking robot should be evaluated. Afterwards the efficiency of teat cleaning by rotating brushes has to be monitored. The vet should check status and disinfection of the brushes after teat cleaning as well as the changing interval. Control points of the liners are contamination, damage and their position during milking. For good teat end disinfection and care the choice of a suitable product and its spray pattern is of importance. Furthermore, modern sensor technique supports via measuring color, temperature, electrical conductivity or somatic cell count of the milk to find cows with an udder health issue. The monitoring of these control- and measurement points together with the most important manufacturer specific terminology and functions of the robot, which the vet should know, provide a good basis for veterinary stock supervision on farms with an automatic milking system. © Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.


Klinkel N.,Justus Liebig University | Wolter W.,Regierungsprasidium Giessen | Herrmann H.-J.,Landesbetrieb Landwirtschaft Hessen LLH | Hoy S.,Justus Liebig University
Praktische Tierarzt | Year: 2013

Investigations in 49 dairy farms during 12 months before until 12 months after beginning of the use of an automatic milking system (AMS) showed on geometric average of all farms an increase in the number of somatic cells from 199,000 to 221,000 cells/ml milk (milk control report). In 32.6 % of the farms the number of somatic cells was decreased by 29,000 cells/ml, in 67.4 % of the farms the mean number of somatic cells was increased by 41,000/ml. In no herd the required two-time cytobacteriological analysis was performed in time. In minimum one mastitis pathogen (major pathogen) was found in 378 udder quarters (2.45 %) of 15,416 controlled udder quarters before AMS use, mixed infections nearly did not occur. On average of the year after AMS use the milk yield of 46 herds was lower by 2.9 % (24.8 kg daily milk yield per cow) than the mean in the year before with milking in the parlour (25.5 kg). The original milk yield was nearly reached again 11 months after conversion to AMS. An increase of milk yield after use of AMS was realized in 37 % of the herds, so this results in approaches to optimization of conversion process.


Sagkob St.,TU Munich | Rudovsky H.-J.,Flohaer Strasse 2 | Pache St.,Sachsisches Landesamt fur Umwelt | Herrmann H.-J.,Landesbetrieb Landwirtschaft Hessen | And 2 more authors.
Precision Livestock Farming 2011 - Papers Presented at the 5th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2011 | Year: 2011

In a joint project a standard cluster and a new innovative cluster were compared. The new cluster (AktivPuls, System Happel) is characterized by an innovative liner design. The vacuum shut off in the massage phase leads to a vacuum reduction at the teat under all milking conditions even with zero milk flow. In a 2 × 7 herringbone parlour the standard and the control group (137 animals in total) was investigated for 127 days. The parameters of the milk removal as well as the udder health were all over the time of the trial reviewed with the analysis technology in the milking parlour and the livestock management program. For further investigations two LactoCorder recordings were implemented.


Loss R.,Justus Liebig University | Prange-Schmidt S.,Justus Liebig University | Ballmann G.,Abteilung Gesundheit Lahn Dill Kreis | Breitbach B.,Gesundheitsamt Landkreis Giessen | And 13 more authors.
Umweltmedizin in Forschung und Praxis | Year: 2012

Background: Multidrugresistant pathogens (MRP) represent currently one of the biggest infectiological challenges. Experiences of last years have shown that MRP must be considered as a primary problem and can be solved only through cooperation of all stakeholders. Public Health Departments, as supervisory authorities, knew already that all Hospitals (H) of Local Districts disposed Hygiene-plans to manage with MRSA positive patients, but standards and risk groups were often very different defined. At long-term care facilities (LC) and home care (HC) standards of care of MRP positive patients were not well clear. By means of a questionnaire, this study aims to known the current stand of hygiene standards in the 3 mentioned facilities. Methods: In March 2011, a total of 341 questionnaires were sent to H, LC, HC. Data were collected about quality structure of facilities, about approach with MRSA and MRP positive patients and about hygiene education and training. The referred time of data refers to 2010. Results: An amount of 284 (83%) questionnaires were returned (33 H, 132 LC, and 119 HC). H: In 64% of H was performed an admission screening of risk patients, by all H are present written standards to manage MRSA positive patients. The information of a MRSA colonization or infection was by 79% H to others facilities at discharge communicated, and eradication status was by 67% of H transmitted. LC: All LC have a hygiene-plan to manage with MRSA positive patients. 42% of LC received regularly advice about MRSA status at admission and 23% about the started eradication. 93% of LC provided hygiene education/-training and 50% were supervised by an infection control nurse. HC: All facilities dispose of a hygiene-plan to manage with MRSA positive patients. HC about a started eradication. 82% of HC provided hygiene education/-training and 25% were supervised by an infection control nurse. Assessment: In many hospitals, long-term care facilities and nursing homes are the recommendations of KRINKO correctly implemented, but rules to manage with MRSA/MRP positive patients are not satisfyingly applied. Communication among facilities is often fragmentary and incomplete, so that exists a big deficiency of information, for example about the therapy and decolonization measures of MRSA positive patients. It is necessary an improvement of communication and cooperation between all stakeholders, so that guidelines and standards for health care can be enhanced through the MRE-Netzwerk Mittelhessen. © ecomed Medizin, Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH, Landsberg.


Gries A.,University of Leipzig | Lenz W.,Main Kinzig Kreis Gefahrenabwehrzentrum | Stahl P.,Rot Kreuz Krankenhaus Kassel | Spiess R.,Regierungsprasidium Giessen | Luiz T.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
Anaesthesist | Year: 2014

Background. Previous studies have suggested that when using several emergency systems and air rescue prehospital and on-scene times are extended, depending on the dispatch strategy. Emergency medical services (EMS) in Germany are delivered by ambulances (AMB) staffed by paramedics alone or with physicians (EMD) and by helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) always staffed by both. The advantages of HEMS in countries with short transport distances and high hospital density are controversial. The best dispatching strategy for HEMS has not been determined. Objective. The BoLuS study in the German state of Hessen was designed to evaluate the influence of dispatch strategy on prehospital times for responses involving both HEMS and EMS. Methods. Rescue responses involving HEMS were prospectively evaluated in 12 regions of Hessen from July 2010 to September 2011. Although all regions had access to HEMS, only one had its own service. Data from both central dispatch centers and helicopter services were collected and combined to calculate the on-scene time (OST) and correlate it with dispatch strategy. Results. A total of 2111 emergency interventions were evaluated. Internal medicine emergencies accounted for 42.9 % of cases and trauma for 36.7 %. Just one patient was involved in 87.9 % of rescues. Two services were involved in 65.3 % of rescues and three or more in 31.5 %. The most common dispatch categories were initial dispatch of EMS and HEMS (50.6 %), initial dispatch of EMS with later request for HEMS (19.7 %) and initial dispatch of both EMS and EMD with later request for HEMS (17.4 %). The OST for these categories were 31.0 ± 13.7 min, 43.7 ± 16.2 min and 54.6 ± 21.3 min (p < 0.01), respectively. Conclusion. OST varies significantly depending on the number of EMS involved and the dispatch strategy. Sequential dispatching of ground and later HEMS wastes time. Getting an emergency physician to the scene as quickly as possible, reducing transport time to an appropriate hospital and caring for more complex emergencies are the main indications for HEMS. If HEMS appears likely to be needed, it should be dispatched immediately. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Strecker T.,University of Marburg | Uhlendorff J.,University of Marburg | Diederich S.,University of Marburg | Lenz-Bauer C.,Novartis | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2012

In spring 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Mexico. During the following weeks the virus spread worldwide, prompting the World Health Organization to declare the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Sustained human-to-human transmission and severe disease progression observed in some patients urged public health authorities to respond rapidly to the disease outbreak and vaccine manufacturers to develop pandemic influenza vaccines for mass distribution. With the onset of the pandemic we began to explore the potential of academic/industrial collaboration to accelerate the production of vaccines during an outbreak of an emerging virus by combining the use of an academic BSL-4 laboratory with the expertise of a commercial vaccine manufacturer. Methods and results: To obtain virus seed stocks used for the production of a vaccine to combat the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus (H1N1pdm), we followed various strategies: (i) optimization of cell culture conditions for growth of wild-type H1N1pdm isolates; (ii) classical reassortment of H1N1pdm and standard influenza vaccine donor strain PR8; and (iii) generation of corresponding reassortant viruses using reverse genetics. To ensure a rapid transition to production, the entire potential seed stock development process was carried out in a certified canine kidney suspension cell line (MDCK 33016-PF) under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions. Conclusions: The outcome of this study indicates that a combination of different experimental strategies is the best way to cope with the need to develop vaccines rapidly in the midst of an emerging pandemic. © 2012 by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • Boston.


Schwarz D.,University of Gottingen | Diesterbeck U.S.,University of Gottingen | Konig S.,University of Kassel | Brugemann K.,University of Kassel | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Research | Year: 2011

Somatic cell count (SCC) is generally regarded as an indicator of udder health. A cut-off value of 100× 10 3 cells/ml is currently used in Germany to differentiate between normal and abnormal secretion of quarters. In addition to SCC, differential cell counts (DCC) can be applied for a more detailed analysis of the udder health status. The aim of this study was to differentiate somatic cells in foremilk samples of udder quarters classified as normal secreting by SCC <100× 10 3 cells/ml. Twenty cows were selected and 72 normal secreting udder quarters were compared with a control group of six diseased quarters (SCC >100× 10 3 cells/ml). In two severely diseased quarters of the control group (SCC of 967× 10 3 cells/ml and 1824× 10 3 cells/ml) Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected. DCC patterns of milk samples (n=25) with very low SCC values of ≤6.25× 10 3 cells/ml revealed high lymphocyte proportions of up to 92%. Milk cell populations in samples (n=41) with SCC values of (>6.25 to ≤25)× 10 3 cells/ml were also dominated by lymphocytes (mean value 47%), whereas DCC patterns of milk from udder quarters (n=6) with SCC values (>25 to ≤100)× 10 3 cells/ml changed. While in samples (n=3) with SCC values of (27-33)× 10 3 cells/ml macrophages were predominant (35-40%), three milk samples with (43-45)× 10 3 cells/ml indicated already inflammatory reactions based on the predominance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) (54-63%). In milk samples of diseased quarters PMN were categorically found as dominant cell population with proportions of ≥65%. Macrophages were the second predominant cell population in almost all samples tested in relationship to lymphocytes and PMN. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating cell populations in low SCC milk in detail. Udder quarters classified as normal secreting by SCC <100× 10 3 cells/ml revealed already inflammatory processes based on DCC. © 2011 Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research.


Schwarz D.,University of Gottingen | Diesterbeck U.S.,University of Gottingen | Konig S.,University of Kassel | Brugemann K.,University of Kassel | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

Somatic cell counts (SCC) are generally used as an indicator of udder health. In Germany, a cutoff value of 100,000 cells/mL is currently used to differentiate between healthy and diseased mammary glands. In addition to SCC, differential cell counts (DCC) can be applied for a more detailed evaluation of the udder health status. The aim of this study was to differentiate immune cells in milk of udder quarters classified as healthy based on SCC values of <100,000 cells/mL. Twenty cows were selected and 65 healthy udder quarters were compared with a control group of 15 diseased udder quarters (SCC >. 100,000 cells/mL). Cells were isolated from milk of all quarters to measure simultaneously percentages of lymphocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL) by flow cytometric analysis. The bacteriological status of all 80 quarters was also determined. Differential cell count patterns of milk samples (n = 15) with extreme low SCC values of ≤6,250 cells/mL revealed high lymphocyte proportions of up to 88%. Milk cell populations in samples (n = 42) with SCC values from >6,250 to ≤25,000 cells/mL were also dominated by lymphocytes, whereas DCC patterns of 6 out of 41 milk samples with SCC values from ≥9,000 to ≤46,000 cells/mL indicated already inflammatory reactions based on the predominance of PMNL (56-75%). In 13 of 15 milk samples of the diseased udder quarters (SCC >100,000 cells/mL), PMNL were categorically found as dominant cell population with proportions of ≥49%. Macrophages were the second predominant cell population in almost all samples tested in relation to lymphocytes and PMNL. Further analysis of the data demonstrated significant differences of the cellular components between udder quarters infected by major pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus; n = 5) and culture-negative udder quarters (n = 56). Even the percentages of immune cells in milk from quarters infected by minor pathogens (e.g., coagulase-negative staphylococci; n = 19) differed significantly from those in milk of culture-negative quarters. Our flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in milk of udder quarters classified as healthy by SCC <100,000 cells/mL revealed inflammatory reactions based on DCC. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.


Schwarz D.,University of Gottingen | Rivas A.L.,North Carolina State University | Rivas A.L.,University of New Mexico | Konig S.,University of Kassel | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Lymphocytes play a significant role in the immunological processes of the bovine mammary gland and were found to be the dominant cell population in the milk of healthy udder quarters. The objective of this study was to investigate the quantitative relationship between CD2+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes using flow cytometry. In a first study, quarter foremilk samples from apparently healthy udder quarters [somatic cell counts (SCC) ≤100,000cells/mL; n=65] were analyzed and compared with diseased quarters (SCC >100,000cells/mL; n=15). Percentages of CD2+ T cells were significantly higher in milk samples with SCC ≤100,000cells/mL than in those with SCC >100,000cells/mL, whereas percentages of CD21+ B cells developed in the opposite direction. As a result of this opposing trend, a new variable, the CD2/CD21 index-representing the percentages of CD2+ cells per CD21+ cells-was defined. Although diseased quarters with SCC >100,000cells/mL and the detection of major pathogens revealed generally CD2/CD21 indices <10, values >10 were observed in apparently healthy quarters. Hence, a CD2/CD21 index cutoff value of 10 may be suitable to aid differentiation between unsuspicious and microbiologically suspicious or diseased udder quarters. To test whether CD2/CD21 indices <10 were primarily related to pathogens, quarters with SCC ≤100,000cells/mL and >100,000cells/mL with different bacteriological status (culture negative, or minor or major pathogens) were selectively examined in a second biphasic study. In the first trial, 63 udder quarters were analyzed and 55 of these quarters were able to be sampled again in the second trial carried out 14 d later. In both trials, results of the first study were confirmed. Indeed, CD2/CD21 indices <10 were also found in quarters showing SCC ≤100,000cells/mL and containing minor or major pathogens at the time of the current or previous bacteriological analysis. The results of our examinations indicated a clear relationship between the CD2/CD21 index and the bacteriological status of the mammary gland. In combination with SCC, it offers a new marker for quick differentiation of unsuspicious and microbiologically suspicious or diseased udder quarters. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Schwarz D.,University of Gottingen | Diesterbeck U.S.,University of Gottingen | Failing K.,Justus Liebig University | Konig S.,University of Gottingen | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Somatic cell counts (SCC) are generally used as an indicator of udder health. Currently in Germany, 100,000 cells/mL is the threshold differentiating infected and noninfected mammary glands. The aim of our study was the detailed analysis of udder health in a representative part of the dairy cow population in Hesse, Germany. Between 2000 and 2008, 615,187 quarter foremilk samples were analyzed. In addition to evaluation of distribution of SCC and prevalence of mastitis pathogens, pathogen prevalence was also calculated depending on SCC. The data indicated that 38% of all samples had SCC >100,000 cells/mL and 62% showed SCC ≤100,000 cells/mL; 31% of all samples revealed SCC ≤25,000 cells/mL. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the dominant pathogens in the Hessian quarter foremilk samples (17.17% of all samples) followed by Corynebacterium spp. (13.56%), Streptococcus uberis (8.7%), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.01%). Mastitis pathogens were detected in 83% of all samples with SCC >100,000 cells/mL. However, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in the SCC range from 1,000 to ≤100,000 cells/mL was 8.5% (5.51% minor pathogens, 2.01% major pathogens, and 0.98% other pathogens). For farms producing high quality milk, exceptional hygiene management is compulsory. One of the farms randomly selected showed clearly different results from the Hessian survey. Fifteen percent more samples lay in the SCC range ≤100,000 cells/mL with a lower prevalence of mastitis pathogens of 1.91% (1.03% minor pathogens, 0.83% major pathogens, and 0.05% other pathogens). Based on these results, inflammatory processes can obviously be detected in mammary glands of udder quarters healthy according to the current definitions. However, we argue that such inflammation can be detected by examination of the relationship of immune cells in milk. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

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