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Fichtner-Feigl S.,University of Regensburg | Fichtner-Feigl S.,Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology | Kesselring R.,University of Regensburg | Strober W.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Trends in Immunology

The role of immunologic factors in the development of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasia, made evident from the high degree of association of chronic intestinal or gastric inflammation with the development of cancer, has attracted much attention because it promises new ways of treating disease. Here we develop the idea that immunologic factors influence the appearance of GI cancer on two levels: (i) a basic and initiating level during which the epithelial cell is induced to undergo pre-cancerous molecular changes that render it prone to further cancer progression; and (ii) a secondary level that builds on this vulnerability and drives the cell into frank malignancy. This secondary level is uniquely dependent on a single epithelial cell signaling pathway centered on STAT3, and it is this pathway upon which stimulation of mucosal cytokine production and microbiota effects converge. © 2015. Source

Leidgens V.,University of Regensburg | Seliger C.,University of Regensburg | Jachnik B.,University of Regensburg | Welz T.,University of Regensburg | And 9 more authors.

Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with anti-tumorigenic effects in different tumor entities. For glioma, research has generally focused on diclofenac; however data on other NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, is limited. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the cellular, molecular, and metabolic effects of ibuprofen and diclofenac on human glioblastoma cells. Methods Glioma cell lines were treated with ibuprofen or diclofenac to investigate functional effects on proliferation and cell motility. Cell cycle, extracellular lactate levels, lactate dehydrogenase- A (LDH-A) expression and activity, as well as inhibition of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT-3) signaling pathway, were determined. Specific effects of diclofenac and ibuprofen on STAT-3 were investigated by comparing their effects with those of the specific STAT-3 inhibitor STATTIC. Results Ibuprofen treatment led to a stronger inhibition of cell growth and migration than treatment with diclofenac. Proliferation was affected by cell cycle arrest at different checkpoints by both agents. In addition, diclofenac, but not ibuprofen, decreased lactate levels in all concentrations used. Both decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation; however, diclofenac led to decreased c-myc expression and subsequent reduction in LDH-A activity, whereas treatment with ibuprofen in higher doses induced c-myc expression and less LDH-A alteration. Conclusions This study indicates that both ibuprofen and diclofenac strongly inhibit glioma cells, but the subsequent metabolic responses of both agents are distinct. We postulate that ibuprofen may inhibit tumor cells also by COX- and lactate-independent mechanisms after long-term treatment in physiological dosages, whereas diclofenac mainly acts by inhibition of STAT-3 signaling and downstream modulation of glycolysis. © 2015 Leidgens et al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Echtenacher B.,University of Regensburg | Wege A.K.,University of Regensburg | Schardt K.,University of Regensburg | Bitterer F.,University of Regensburg | And 5 more authors.
Ultraschall in der Medizin

Purpose: A. fumigatus infections represent a major threat for patients with a suppressed immune system. Early diagnosis is of importance for a favorable outcome but appears to be difficult due to limited diagnostic procedures. Here we investigated the sensitivity of high-resolution ultrasound (HRU) for the detection of A. fumigatus infection in the liver. Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were intravenously infected with A. fumigatus and monitored by HRU, Doppler sonography (CCDS), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and real-time strain color-coded elastography (CCE) using a multi-frequency probe (6 - 15 MHz). Contrast media bolus injection of sulfur-hexafluoride micro-bubbles was applied and digital cine-loops from the arterial phase, as well as the portal venous phase up to the late phase of the whole liver were analyzed. All data were correlated to the histopathological findings. Results: Using HRU and CEUS, a sonic shadow was detected in all infected animals. All Aspergillus-infected nodes from 3 - 6 mm in the liver showed a shadow with rim enhancement and no intranodal enhancement when using CEUS. A. fumigatus infection was confirmed by CFU assessment and histopathological analysis. Granulomas were not associated with shadowing on B-mode. In contrast, granulomas with a diameter above 5 mm and a higher stiffness in CCE generated particularly an arterial rim enhancement and portal venous washout without contrast media uptake in the late phase. In addition, CEUS was able to define dynamic capillary microvascularization of infected liver areas. Conclusion: Liver lesions associated with A. fumigatus infection can be detected in mice when combined with CEUS and CCE in vivo. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York. Source

Klug M.,University of Regensburg | Klug M.,German Cancer Research Center | Schmidhofer S.,University of Regensburg | Gebhard C.,University of Regensburg | And 2 more authors.
Genome Biology

Background: Cytosine methylation is a frequent epigenetic modification restricting the activity of gene regulatory elements. Whereas DNA methylation patterns are generally inherited during replication, both embryonic and somatic differentiation processes require the removal of cytosine methylation at specific gene loci to activate lineage-restricted elements. However, the exact mechanisms facilitating the erasure of DNA methylation remain unclear in many cases. Results: We previously established human post-proliferative monocytes as a model to study active DNA demethylation. We now show, for several previously identified genomic sites, that the loss of DNA methylation during the differentiation of primary, post-proliferative human monocytes into dendritic cells is preceded by the local appearance of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Monocytes were found to express the methylcytosine dioxygenase Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) 2, which is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of this enzyme in primary monocytes prevented active DNA demethylation, suggesting that TET2 is essential for the proper execution of this process in human monocytes. Conclusions: The work described here provides definite evidence that TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine initiates targeted, active DNA demethylation in a mature postmitotic myeloid cell type. © 2013 Klug et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Schmidl C.,University of Regensburg | Schmidl C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Hansmann L.,University of Regensburg | Hansmann L.,Stanford University | And 18 more authors.

CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ human regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis.Here, we describe the promoterome of CD4+ CD25high CD45RA + naïve and CD4+CD25highCD45RA -memory Tregs and their CD25- conventional T-cell (Tconv) counterparts both before and after in vitro expansion by cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) adapted to single-molecule sequencing (HeliScopeCAGE). We performed comprehensive comparative digital gene expression analyses and revealed novel transcription start sites, of which severalwere validated as alternative promoters of known genes. For all in vitro expanded subsets, we additionally generated global maps of poised and active enhancer elementsmarked by histoneH3 lysine 4monomethylation and histone H3 lysine 27acetylation, describe their cell type-specificmotif signatures, and evaluate the roleof candidate transcription factors STAT5, FOXP3, RUNX1, and ETS1 in both Treg- and Tconv-specific enhancer architectures. Network analyses of gene expression data revealed additional candidate transcription factors contributing to cell type specificity and a transcription factor network in Tregs that is dominated by FOXP3 interaction partners and targets. In summary, we provide a comprehensive and easily accessible resource of gene expression and gene regulation in human Treg and Tconv subpopulations. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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