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PubMed | University of Regensburg and Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JCI insight | Year: 2016

Little is known about the role of IL-3 in multiple sclerosis (MS) in humans and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-induced EAE, we show that CD4


Renner K.,University of Regensburg | Renner K.,Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology | Geiselhoringer A.-L.,University of Regensburg | Geiselhoringer A.-L.,Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology | And 17 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2015

The strong link between T-cell metabolism and effector functions is well characterized in the murine system but hardly investigated in human T cells. Therefore, we analyzed glycolytic and mitochondrial activity in correlation to function in activated human CD4 and CD8 T cells. Glycolysis was barely detectable upon stimulation but accelerated beyond 24 h, whereas mitochondrial activity was elevated immediately in both T-cell populations. Glucose deprivation or mitochondrial restriction reduced proliferation, had only a transient impact on "on-blast formation" and no impact on viability, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 production, whereas TNF was reduced. Similar results were obtained in bulk T cells and T-cell subsets. Elevated respiration under glucose restriction demonstrated metabolic flexibility. Administration of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-glucose suppressed both glycolysis and respiration and exerted a strong impact on cytokine production that persisted for IFN-γ after removal of 2-deoxy-glucose. Taken together, glycolytic or mitochondrial restriction alone compromised proliferation of human T cells, but barely affected their effector functions. In contrast, effector functions were severely affected by 2-deoxy-glucose treatment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Schmidl C.,University of Regensburg | Schmidl C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Hansmann L.,University of Regensburg | Hansmann L.,Stanford University | And 18 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ human regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis.Here, we describe the promoterome of CD4+ CD25high CD45RA + naïve and CD4+CD25highCD45RA -memory Tregs and their CD25- conventional T-cell (Tconv) counterparts both before and after in vitro expansion by cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) adapted to single-molecule sequencing (HeliScopeCAGE). We performed comprehensive comparative digital gene expression analyses and revealed novel transcription start sites, of which severalwere validated as alternative promoters of known genes. For all in vitro expanded subsets, we additionally generated global maps of poised and active enhancer elementsmarked by histoneH3 lysine 4monomethylation and histone H3 lysine 27acetylation, describe their cell type-specificmotif signatures, and evaluate the roleof candidate transcription factors STAT5, FOXP3, RUNX1, and ETS1 in both Treg- and Tconv-specific enhancer architectures. Network analyses of gene expression data revealed additional candidate transcription factors contributing to cell type specificity and a transcription factor network in Tregs that is dominated by FOXP3 interaction partners and targets. In summary, we provide a comprehensive and easily accessible resource of gene expression and gene regulation in human Treg and Tconv subpopulations. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.


Schmidl C.,University of Regensburg | Schmidl C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Renner K.,University of Regensburg | Peter K.,University of Regensburg | And 20 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Human blood monocytes comprise at least 3 subpopulations that differ in phenotype and function. Here, we present the first in-depth regulome analysis of human classical (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14 +CD16+), and nonclassical (CD14dimCD16 +) monocytes. Cap analysis of gene expression adapted to Helicos single-molecule sequencing was used to map transcription start sites throughout the genome in all 3 subsets. In addition, global maps of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac deposition were generated for classical and nonclassical monocytes defining enhanceosomes of the 2 major subsets. We identified differential regulatory elements (including promoters and putative enhancers) that were associated with subset-specific motif signatures corresponding to different transcription factor activities and exemplarily validated novel downstream enhancer elements at the CD14 locus. In addition to known subset-specific features, pathway analysis revealed marked differences in metabolic gene signatures. Whereas classical monocytes expressed higher levels of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, priming them for anaerobic energy production, nonclassical monocytes expressed higher levels of oxidative pathway components and showed a higher mitochondrial routine activity. Our findings describe promoter/enhancer landscapes and provide novel insights into the specific biology of human monocyte subsets. (Blood. 2014;123(17):e90-e99) © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.


Fichtner-Feigl S.,University of Regensburg | Fichtner-Feigl S.,Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology | Kesselring R.,University of Regensburg | Strober W.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2015

The role of immunologic factors in the development of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasia, made evident from the high degree of association of chronic intestinal or gastric inflammation with the development of cancer, has attracted much attention because it promises new ways of treating disease. Here we develop the idea that immunologic factors influence the appearance of GI cancer on two levels: (i) a basic and initiating level during which the epithelial cell is induced to undergo pre-cancerous molecular changes that render it prone to further cancer progression; and (ii) a secondary level that builds on this vulnerability and drives the cell into frank malignancy. This secondary level is uniquely dependent on a single epithelial cell signaling pathway centered on STAT3, and it is this pathway upon which stimulation of mucosal cytokine production and microbiota effects converge. © 2015.


Hermann F.J.,University of Regensburg | Rodriguez Gomez M.,University of Regensburg | Doser K.,University of Regensburg | Edinger M.,University of Regensburg | And 12 more authors.
Immunology | Year: 2015

Basophils are known to modulate the phenotype of CD4+ T cells and to enhance T helper type 2 responses in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that murine basophils inhibit proliferation of CD4+ T cells in autologous and allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions. The inhibition is independent of Fas and MHC class II, but dependent on activation of basophils with subsequent release of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-6. The inhibitory effect of basophils on T-cell proliferation can be blocked with antibodies against IL-4 and IL-6 and is absent in IL-4/IL-6 double-deficient mice. In addition, we show that basophils and IL-4 have beneficial effects on disease activity in a murine model of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). When basophils were depleted with the antibody MAR-1 before induction of GvHD, weight loss, GvHD score, mortality and plasma tumour necrosis factor levels were increased while injection of IL-4 improved GvHD. Basophil-depleted mice with GvHD also have increased numbers of CD4+ T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Our data show for the first time that basophils suppress autologous and allogeneic CD4+ T-cell proliferation in an IL-4-dependent manner. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Echtenacher B.,University of Regensburg | Wege A.K.,University of Regensburg | Schardt K.,University of Regensburg | Bitterer F.,University of Regensburg | And 5 more authors.
Ultraschall in der Medizin | Year: 2016

Purpose: A. fumigatus infections represent a major threat for patients with a suppressed immune system. Early diagnosis is of importance for a favorable outcome but appears to be difficult due to limited diagnostic procedures. Here we investigated the sensitivity of high-resolution ultrasound (HRU) for the detection of A. fumigatus infection in the liver. Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were intravenously infected with A. fumigatus and monitored by HRU, Doppler sonography (CCDS), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and real-time strain color-coded elastography (CCE) using a multi-frequency probe (6 - 15 MHz). Contrast media bolus injection of sulfur-hexafluoride micro-bubbles was applied and digital cine-loops from the arterial phase, as well as the portal venous phase up to the late phase of the whole liver were analyzed. All data were correlated to the histopathological findings. Results: Using HRU and CEUS, a sonic shadow was detected in all infected animals. All Aspergillus-infected nodes from 3 - 6 mm in the liver showed a shadow with rim enhancement and no intranodal enhancement when using CEUS. A. fumigatus infection was confirmed by CFU assessment and histopathological analysis. Granulomas were not associated with shadowing on B-mode. In contrast, granulomas with a diameter above 5 mm and a higher stiffness in CCE generated particularly an arterial rim enhancement and portal venous washout without contrast media uptake in the late phase. In addition, CEUS was able to define dynamic capillary microvascularization of infected liver areas. Conclusion: Liver lesions associated with A. fumigatus infection can be detected in mice when combined with CEUS and CCE in vivo. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.


Leidgens V.,University of Regensburg | Seliger C.,University of Regensburg | Jachnik B.,University of Regensburg | Welz T.,University of Regensburg | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with anti-tumorigenic effects in different tumor entities. For glioma, research has generally focused on diclofenac; however data on other NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, is limited. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the cellular, molecular, and metabolic effects of ibuprofen and diclofenac on human glioblastoma cells. Methods Glioma cell lines were treated with ibuprofen or diclofenac to investigate functional effects on proliferation and cell motility. Cell cycle, extracellular lactate levels, lactate dehydrogenase- A (LDH-A) expression and activity, as well as inhibition of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT-3) signaling pathway, were determined. Specific effects of diclofenac and ibuprofen on STAT-3 were investigated by comparing their effects with those of the specific STAT-3 inhibitor STATTIC. Results Ibuprofen treatment led to a stronger inhibition of cell growth and migration than treatment with diclofenac. Proliferation was affected by cell cycle arrest at different checkpoints by both agents. In addition, diclofenac, but not ibuprofen, decreased lactate levels in all concentrations used. Both decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation; however, diclofenac led to decreased c-myc expression and subsequent reduction in LDH-A activity, whereas treatment with ibuprofen in higher doses induced c-myc expression and less LDH-A alteration. Conclusions This study indicates that both ibuprofen and diclofenac strongly inhibit glioma cells, but the subsequent metabolic responses of both agents are distinct. We postulate that ibuprofen may inhibit tumor cells also by COX- and lactate-independent mechanisms after long-term treatment in physiological dosages, whereas diclofenac mainly acts by inhibition of STAT-3 signaling and downstream modulation of glycolysis. © 2015 Leidgens et al This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Klug M.,University of Regensburg | Klug M.,German Cancer Research Center | Schmidhofer S.,University of Regensburg | Gebhard C.,University of Regensburg | And 2 more authors.
Genome Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Cytosine methylation is a frequent epigenetic modification restricting the activity of gene regulatory elements. Whereas DNA methylation patterns are generally inherited during replication, both embryonic and somatic differentiation processes require the removal of cytosine methylation at specific gene loci to activate lineage-restricted elements. However, the exact mechanisms facilitating the erasure of DNA methylation remain unclear in many cases. Results: We previously established human post-proliferative monocytes as a model to study active DNA demethylation. We now show, for several previously identified genomic sites, that the loss of DNA methylation during the differentiation of primary, post-proliferative human monocytes into dendritic cells is preceded by the local appearance of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Monocytes were found to express the methylcytosine dioxygenase Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) 2, which is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of this enzyme in primary monocytes prevented active DNA demethylation, suggesting that TET2 is essential for the proper execution of this process in human monocytes. Conclusions: The work described here provides definite evidence that TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine initiates targeted, active DNA demethylation in a mature postmitotic myeloid cell type. © 2013 Klug et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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