Heverlee, Belgium


Heverlee, Belgium
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Reading J.L.,King's College London | Yang J.H.M.,King's College London | Sabbah S.,King's College London | Skowera A.,King's College London | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2013

A major goal of immunotherapy remains the control of pathogenic T cell responses that drive autoimmunity and allograft rejection. Adherent progenitor cells, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), represent attractive immunomodulatory cell therapy candidates currently active in clinical trials. MAPCs can be distinguished from MSCs on the basis of cellular phenotype, size, transcriptional profile, and expansion capacity. However, despite their ongoing evaluation in autoimmune and allogeneic solid organ transplantation settings, data supporting the immune regulatory potential of clinical-grade MAPCs are limited. In this study, we used allogeneic islet transplantation as a model indication to assess the ability of clinical-grade MAPCs to control T cell responses that drive immunopathology in human autoimmune disease and allograft rejection. MAPCs suppressed T cell proliferation and Th1 and Th17 cytokine production while increasing secretion of IL-10 and were able to suppress effector functions of bona fide autoreactive T cells from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus, including killing of human islets. Furthermore, MAPCs favored the proliferation of regulatory T cells during homeostatic expansion driven by γ-chain cytokines and exerted a durable, yet reversible, control of T cell function. MAPC suppression required licensing and proceeded via IDO-mediated tryptophan catabolism. Therefore, the common immune modulatory characteristics of clinical-grade MAPCs shown in this study suggest that they can be regarded as an alternative source of adult progenitor cells with similar clinical usefulness to MSCs. Taken collectively, these findings may guide the successful deployment of both MSCs and MAPCs for the amelioration of human autoimmunity and allograft rejection. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

Franquesa M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Hoogduijn M.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Reinders M.E.,Leiden University | Eggenhofer E.,University of Regensburg | And 37 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2013

The Fourth Expert Meeting of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Solid Organ Transplantation (MiSOT) Consortium took place in Barcelona on October 19 and 20, 2012. This meeting focused on the translation of preclinical data into early clinical settings. This position paper highlights the main topics explored on the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic agent in solid organ transplantation and emphasizes the issues (proper timing, concomitant immunossupression, source and immunogenicity of mesenchymal stem cells, and oncogenicity) that have been addressed and will be followed up by the MiSOT Consortium in future studies. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Eggenhofer E.,University of Regensburg | Popp F.C.,University of Regensburg | Mendicino M.,Case Western Reserve University | Silber P.,University of Regensburg | And 9 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are an adherent stem cell population that belongs to the mesenchymal-type progenitor cell family. Although MAPCs are emerging as candidate agents for immunomodulation after solid organ transplantation, their value requires further validation in a clinically relevant cell therapy model using an organ donor- and organ recipient-independent, thirdparty cell product. We report that stable allograft survival can be achieved following third-party MAPC infusion in a rat model of fully allogeneic, heterotopic heart transplantation. Furthermore, long-term accepted heart grafts recovered from MAPC-treated animals can be successfully retransplanted to naïve animals without additional immunosuppression. This prolongation of MAPC-mediated allograft acceptance depends upon a myeloid cell population since depletion of macrophages by clodronate abrogates the tolerogenic MAPC effect. We also show that MAPC-mediated allograft acceptance differs mechanistically from drug-induced tolerance regarding marker gene expression, T regulatory cell induction, retransplantability, and macrophage dependence. MAPC-based immunomodulation represents a promising pathway for clinical immunotherapy that has led us to initiate a phase I clinical trial for testing safety and feasibility of third-party MAPC therapy after liver transplantation. © AlphaMed Press 2013.

PubMed | Case Western Reserve University, ReGenesys and Athersys
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Following spinal cord injury (SCI), immune-mediated secondary processes exacerbate the extent of permanent neurological deficits. We investigated the capacity of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells, which exhibit immunomodulatory properties, to alter inflammation and promote recovery following SCI. In vitro, we show that human multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) have the ability to modulate macrophage activation, and prior exposure to MAPC secreted factors can reduce macrophage-mediated axonal dieback of dystrophic axons. Using a contusion model of SCI, we found that intravenous delivery of MAPCs one day, but not immediately, after SCI significantly improves urinary and locomotor recovery, which was associated with marked spinal cord tissue sparing. Intravenous MAPCs altered the immune response in the spinal cord and periphery, however biodistribution studies revealed that no MAPCs were found in the cord and instead preferentially homed to the spleen. Our results demonstrate that MAPCs exert their primary effects in the periphery and provide strong support for the use of these cells in acute human contusive SCI.

Jacobs S.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pinxteren J.,ReGenesys | Roobrouck V.D.,Catholic University of Leuven | Luyckx A.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 6 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2013

Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are bone marrow-derived nonhematopoietic stem cells with a broad differentiation potential and extensive expansion capacity. A comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human MAPCs (hMAPCs) has shown that hMAPCs have clearly distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics from hMSCs. In particular, hMAPCs express lower levels of MHC class I than hMSCs and cannot only differentiate into typical mesenchymal cell types but can also differentiate in vitro and in vivo into functional endothelial cells. The use of hMSCs as cellular immunomodulatory stem cell products gained much interest since their immunomodulatory capacities in vitro became evident over the last decade. Currently, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs is already used in clinical trials to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), as well as for the treatment of acute myocardial infarct, ischemic stroke, and Crohn's disease. Therefore, we studied the immune phenotype, immunogenicity, and immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs in vitro. We demonstrated that hMAPCs are nonimmunogenic for T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, hMAPCs exert strong immunosuppressive effects on T-cell alloreactivity and on T-cell proliferation induced by mitogens and recall antigens. This immunomodulatory effect was not MHC restricted, which makes off-the-shelf use promising. The immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs is partially mediated via soluble factors and dependent on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity. At last, we isolated hMAPCs, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs, named MultiStem, and hMSCs from one single donor and observed that both the immunogenicity and the immunosuppressive capacities of all three stem cell products are comparable in vitro. In conclusion, hMAPCs have potent immunomodulatory properties in vitro and can serve as a valuable cell source for the clinical use of immunomodulatory cellular stem cell product. © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

PubMed | ReGenesys and Athersys
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell medicine | Year: 2016

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that leads to destruction of pancreatic islet cells and is a growing global health issue. While insulin replacement remains the standard therapy for type 1 diabetes, exogenous insulin does not mimic the physiology of insulin secretion. Transplantation of pancreatic islets has the potential to cure this disease; however, there are several major limitations to widespread implementation of islet transplants. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the treatment of type 1 diabetes has been investigated as an adjunct therapy during islet graft administration to prevent initial islet loss and promote engraftment and revascularization of islets. In this review we will discuss the results of recent MSC studies in animal models of diabetes with a focus on islet transplantation and explore the potential for these findings to be extended to clinical use for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.

Jacobs S.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Plessers J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pinxteren J.,ReGenesys | Roobrouck V.D.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2014

Human multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPCs) are isolated from bone marrow with a more extensive expansion capacity compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and with the ability to differentiate into endothelium. Like hMSCs, hMAPCs inhibit T-cell proliferation induced by alloantigens. In this study, we tested the interaction between hMAPCs and natural killer (NK) cells. We assessed the susceptibility of hMAPCs to NK cell-mediated lysis and the immunomodulation of hMAPCs on NK cell function during IL-2-driven stimulation and the cytolytic effector phase. Human MAPCs express the ligands PVR and ULBP-2/5/6, which are recognized by activating NK cell receptors. However, they also express MHC class I molecules, which induce inhibitory signals in NK cells. Freshly isolated NK cells at different effector:target ratios did not kill hMAPCs as assessed by an MTT and51Cr-release assay, while hMAPCs impaired the cytotoxic activity of resting NK cells against the NK-sensitive K562 leukemia cell line. By contrast, IL-2-stimulated NK cells were capable of killing hMAPCs, and preactivated NK cells were not influenced during their cytotoxic effector function against K562 cells by hMAPCs. When added during the 6-day preactivation phase with IL-2, hMAPCs dosedependently reduced NK cell proliferation in an IDO-dependent manner, but they did not influence the induction of cytotoxic capacity by IL-2. This study indicates that human MAPCs mutually interact with NK cells. © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

PubMed | Catholic University of Leuven, RWTH Aachen and ReGenesys
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Stem cells translational medicine | Year: 2016

: MultiStem cells are clinical-grade multipotent adult bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (MAPCs), with extensive replication potential and broader differentiation capacity compared with mesenchymal stem cells. Human MAPCs suppress T-cell proliferation induced by alloantigens and mutually interact with allogeneic natural killer cells. In this study, the interaction between MultiStem and CD8Because multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are among the noteworthy adult mesenchymal stem cell populations for immune therapy and have the advantage over mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of large-scale manufacturing and banking potential and thus prompt availability, it is important to understand how MAPCs interact with immune cells to validate their widespread therapeutic applicability. Cytotoxic immune effector cells play a crucial role in immune homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases. This study assessed for the first time the in vitro influence of a clinical-grade human MAPC product (MultiStem) on the cytotoxic function of CD8

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