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Oud-Heverlee, Belgium

Jacobs S.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Plessers J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pinxteren J.,Regenesys | Roobrouck V.D.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2014

Human multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPCs) are isolated from bone marrow with a more extensive expansion capacity compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and with the ability to differentiate into endothelium. Like hMSCs, hMAPCs inhibit T-cell proliferation induced by alloantigens. In this study, we tested the interaction between hMAPCs and natural killer (NK) cells. We assessed the susceptibility of hMAPCs to NK cell-mediated lysis and the immunomodulation of hMAPCs on NK cell function during IL-2-driven stimulation and the cytolytic effector phase. Human MAPCs express the ligands PVR and ULBP-2/5/6, which are recognized by activating NK cell receptors. However, they also express MHC class I molecules, which induce inhibitory signals in NK cells. Freshly isolated NK cells at different effector:target ratios did not kill hMAPCs as assessed by an MTT and51Cr-release assay, while hMAPCs impaired the cytotoxic activity of resting NK cells against the NK-sensitive K562 leukemia cell line. By contrast, IL-2-stimulated NK cells were capable of killing hMAPCs, and preactivated NK cells were not influenced during their cytotoxic effector function against K562 cells by hMAPCs. When added during the 6-day preactivation phase with IL-2, hMAPCs dosedependently reduced NK cell proliferation in an IDO-dependent manner, but they did not influence the induction of cytotoxic capacity by IL-2. This study indicates that human MAPCs mutually interact with NK cells. © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

Eggenhofer E.,University of Regensburg | Popp F.C.,University of Regensburg | Mendicino M.,Case Western Reserve University | Silber P.,University of Regensburg | And 9 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are an adherent stem cell population that belongs to the mesenchymal-type progenitor cell family. Although MAPCs are emerging as candidate agents for immunomodulation after solid organ transplantation, their value requires further validation in a clinically relevant cell therapy model using an organ donor- and organ recipient-independent, thirdparty cell product. We report that stable allograft survival can be achieved following third-party MAPC infusion in a rat model of fully allogeneic, heterotopic heart transplantation. Furthermore, long-term accepted heart grafts recovered from MAPC-treated animals can be successfully retransplanted to naïve animals without additional immunosuppression. This prolongation of MAPC-mediated allograft acceptance depends upon a myeloid cell population since depletion of macrophages by clodronate abrogates the tolerogenic MAPC effect. We also show that MAPC-mediated allograft acceptance differs mechanistically from drug-induced tolerance regarding marker gene expression, T regulatory cell induction, retransplantability, and macrophage dependence. MAPC-based immunomodulation represents a promising pathway for clinical immunotherapy that has led us to initiate a phase I clinical trial for testing safety and feasibility of third-party MAPC therapy after liver transplantation. © AlphaMed Press 2013.

Jacobs S.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pinxteren J.,Regenesys | Roobrouck V.D.,Catholic University of Leuven | Luyckx A.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 6 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2013

Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are bone marrow-derived nonhematopoietic stem cells with a broad differentiation potential and extensive expansion capacity. A comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human MAPCs (hMAPCs) has shown that hMAPCs have clearly distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics from hMSCs. In particular, hMAPCs express lower levels of MHC class I than hMSCs and cannot only differentiate into typical mesenchymal cell types but can also differentiate in vitro and in vivo into functional endothelial cells. The use of hMSCs as cellular immunomodulatory stem cell products gained much interest since their immunomodulatory capacities in vitro became evident over the last decade. Currently, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs is already used in clinical trials to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), as well as for the treatment of acute myocardial infarct, ischemic stroke, and Crohn's disease. Therefore, we studied the immune phenotype, immunogenicity, and immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs in vitro. We demonstrated that hMAPCs are nonimmunogenic for T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, hMAPCs exert strong immunosuppressive effects on T-cell alloreactivity and on T-cell proliferation induced by mitogens and recall antigens. This immunomodulatory effect was not MHC restricted, which makes off-the-shelf use promising. The immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs is partially mediated via soluble factors and dependent on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity. At last, we isolated hMAPCs, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs, named MultiStem, and hMSCs from one single donor and observed that both the immunogenicity and the immunosuppressive capacities of all three stem cell products are comparable in vitro. In conclusion, hMAPCs have potent immunomodulatory properties in vitro and can serve as a valuable cell source for the clinical use of immunomodulatory cellular stem cell product. © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

Franquesa M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Hoogduijn M.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Reinders M.E.,Leiden University | Eggenhofer E.,University of Regensburg | And 37 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2013

The Fourth Expert Meeting of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Solid Organ Transplantation (MiSOT) Consortium took place in Barcelona on October 19 and 20, 2012. This meeting focused on the translation of preclinical data into early clinical settings. This position paper highlights the main topics explored on the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic agent in solid organ transplantation and emphasizes the issues (proper timing, concomitant immunossupression, source and immunogenicity of mesenchymal stem cells, and oncogenicity) that have been addressed and will be followed up by the MiSOT Consortium in future studies. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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