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Glass, United States

Serry M.A.,Refractories | Serry M.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | El-Maghraby M.S.,Refractories | Abd El-Raof F.,Refractories
Industrial Ceramics | Year: 2010

The aim of the present work is to prepare and assess developed LCC and ULCC refractory alumino-silicate castables containing 60-99% alumina as compared with traditional RCC and MCC types within the CaO-A12O 3-SiO2 system. The materials used were graded calcined kaolin (grog) and bauxite as well as tabular alumina grains as aggregates. Also, mixtures of 50 or 70%Al2O3 calcium-aluminate cement (CAC), ultra-fine calcined alumina (CA) and water-reducing agents (WRA) were used as binding matrices. It is shown that the addition of 0.20% of a combined admixture as well as increasing CA of both the CAC-Secar- 51 and 71 binding batches generally lead to a gradual decrease of water of consistency (WOC) as well as initial and final setting times of their pastes. These batches were applied as binding matrices for the traditional and developed castables with minimum water contents. The developed ULCC and LCC types show generally limited linear change and reduction the cold crushing strength after preheating up to 1000 °C as compared with the traditional MCC and RCC types. After preheating up to 1600 °C, the developed types also give higher bulk density with accepted cold crushing strength. Highly refractory developed LCC and ULCC corundum castables with 97-99% total alumina as well as minimum contents of CAC71 (3-6%), WOC (6-7%) and glassy phase were prepared and recommended for application at ≥ 1600°C. Similarly LCC and LJLCC sillimanite (60-65% Al2O3) and bauxite (85-88% Al 2O3) castables with relatively higher WOC (7-11%) and lower refractory grade were also prepared and recommended for application up to only 1500 °C.

Smith R.,Refractories | Purvis A.,Refractories
Glass International | Year: 2010

The method of spout insulation is an important decision when operating a glass container plant. It can greatly affect the efficiency of the feeder, in regards to heat and energy, as well as manpower and downtime. There are methods that have been used effectively for decades, while new methods have been developed to ease the installation without sacrificing other properties. It is important to consider all factors when choosing the insulation package that best suits the needs of the plant, and not to underestimate the importance of the insulation.

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