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Time filter

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BURLINGAME, CA, United States

Yang J.,Stanford University | Yamamoto T.,University of California at Davis | Mazin S.R.,Reflexion Medical, Inc. | Graves E.E.,Stanford University | Keall P.J.,University of Sydney
Medical Physics | Year: 2014

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the potential and feasibility of positron emission tomography for dynamic lung tumor tracking during radiation treatment. The authors propose a center of mass (CoM) tumor tracking algorithm using gated-PET images combined with a respiratory monitor and investigate the geometric accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Methods: The proposed PET dynamic lung tumor tracking algorithm estimated the target position information through the CoM of the segmented target volume on gated PET images reconstructed from accumulated coincidence events. The information was continuously updated throughout a scan based on the assumption that real-time processing was supported (actual processing time at each frame ≈10 s). External respiratory motion and list-mode PET data were acquired from a phantom programmed to move with measured respiratory traces (external respiratory motion and internal target motion) from human subjects, for which the ground truth target position was known as a function of time. The phantom was cylindrical with six hollow sphere targets (10, 13, 17, 22, 28, and 37 mm in diameter). The measured respiratory traces consisted of two sets: (1) 1D-measured motion from ten healthy volunteers and (2) 3D-measured motion from four lung cancer patients. The authors evaluated the geometric accuracy of the proposed algorithm by quantifying estimation errors (Euclidean distance) between the actual motion of targets (1D-motion and 3D-motion traces) and CoM trajectories estimated by the proposed algorithm as a function of time. Results: The time-averaged error of 1D-motion traces over all trajectories of all targets was 1.6 mm. The error trajectories decreased with time as coincidence events were accumulated. The overall error trajectory of 1D-motion traces converged to within 2 mm in approximately 90 s. As expected, more accurate results were obtained for larger targets. For example, for the 37 mm target, the average error over all 1D-motion traces was 1.1 mm; and for the 10 mm target, the average error over all 1D-motion traces was 2.8 mm. The overall time-averaged error of 3D-motion traces was 1.6 mm, which was comparable to that of the 1D-motion traces. There were small variations in the errors between the 3D-motion traces, although the motion trajectories were very different. The accuracy of the estimates was consistent for all targets except for the smallest. Conclusions: The authors developed an algorithm for dynamic lung tumor tracking using list-mode PET data and a respiratory motion signal, and demonstrated proof-of-principle for PET-guided lung tumor tracking. The overall tracking error in phantom studies is less than 2 mm. © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source


Mazin S.R.,Stanford University | Mazin S.R.,Reflexion Medical, Inc. | Pelc N.J.,Stanford University
Medical Physics | Year: 2010

Purpose: P. R. Edholm, R. M. Lewitt, and B. Lindholm, "Novel properties of the Fourier decomposition of the sinogram," in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Physics and Engineering of Computerized Multidimensional Imaging and Processing [Proc. SPIE 671, 8-18 (1986)] described properties of a parallel beam projection sinogram with respect to its radial and angular frequencies. The purpose is to perform a similar derivation to arrive at corresponding properties of a fan-beam projection sinogram for both the equal-angle and equal-spaced detector sampling scenarios. Methods: One of the derived properties is an approximately zero-energy region in the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the full fan-beam sinogram. This region is in the form of a double-wedge, similar to the parallel beam case, but different in that it is asymmetric with respect to the frequency axes. The authors characterize this region for a point object and validate the derived properties in both a simulation and a head CT data set. The authors apply these results in an application using algebraic reconstruction. Results: In the equal-angle case, the domain of the zero region is (q,k) for which k/ (k-q) >R/L, where q and k are the frequency variables associated with the detector and view angular positions, respectively, R is the radial support of the object, and L is the source-to-isocenter distance. A filter was designed to retain only sinogram frequencies corresponding to a specified radial support. The filtered sinogram was used to reconstruct the same radial support of the head CT data. As an example application of this concept, the double-wedge filter was used to computationally improve region of interest iterative reconstruction. Conclusions: Interesting properties of the fan-beam sinogram exist and may be exploited in some applications. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source


Patent
Reflexion Medical, Inc. | Date: 2014-05-15

An apparatus comprising a radiation source, coincident positron emission detectors configured to detect coincident positron annihilation emissions originating within a coordinate system, and a controller coupled to the radiation source and the coincident positron emission detectors, the controller configured to identify coincident positron annihilation emission paths intersecting one or more volumes in the coordinate system and align the radiation source along an identified coincident positron annihilation emission path.


Patent
Reflexion Medical, Inc. | Date: 2012-03-30

Described herein are systems and methods for positioning a radiation source with respect to one or more regions of interest in a coordinate system. Such systems and methods may be used in emission guided radiation therapy (EGRT) for the localized delivery of radiation to one or more patient tumor regions. These systems comprise a gantry movable about a patient area, where a plurality of positron emission detectors, a radiation source are arranged movably on the gantry, and a controller. The controller is configured to identify a coincident positron annihilation emission path and to position the radiation source to apply a radiation beam along the identified emission path. The systems and methods described herein can be used alone or in conjunction with surgery, chemotherapy, and/or brachytherapy for the treatment of tumors.


Patent
Reflexion Medical, Inc. | Date: 2015-11-24

An apparatus comprising a radiation source, coincident positron emission detectors configured to detect coincident positron annihilation emissions originating within a coordinate system, and a controller coupled to the radiation source and the coincident positron emission detectors, the controller configured to identify coincident positron annihilation emission paths intersecting one or more volumes in the coordinate system and align the radiation source along an identified coincident positron annihilation emission path.

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