Refik Saydam Public Health Agency

Ankara Turkey, Turkey

Refik Saydam Public Health Agency

Ankara Turkey, Turkey

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Ozkan O.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency | Alcigir M.E.,Ankara University | Vural S.A.,Ankara University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

The aim of this research was to determine the presence of cardiac injury in rabbit animal model with envenomed Androctonus crassicauda venom by serial measurements of cardiac troponin I and assessed the histopathologic changes of the heart for evaluation of the extent of damages. Experimental envenomations were performed by intravenous of 0.5 mL of PSS containing a scorpion venom. Blood samples were collected from each animal (0 min [control]) before envenomation. Blood samples were collected from each animal on the 1 st, 3rd, 6th and 24th h after venom injection. Serum cardiac troponin I level determined using abbot architect troponin I kit (Abbott Laboratories, USA). Cardiac tissues taken from envenomed animals were for histopathological examination after 24 h The scorpion venom led to significantly increased in serum cardiac troponin I enzyme activities at the 3rd, 6th and 24th h after injection when compared with those of the control group. In vivo effects of the venom observed such as salivation, lacrimation, deep dyspnea and tachypnea in rabbits. Histopathological examination of heart tissue was showed development of myocardial injury. This study demonstrated that Androctonus crassicauda venom may be cause development of myocardial injury. The using of cardiac troponin I as a follow-up criterion in the scorpion envenoming may be allow early establishing of the cardiac involvement. © Medwell Journals, 2012.


Ozkan O.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency | Ozkan O.,Ankara University | Ahmet C.,Turkish Accreditation Agency | Zafer K.,Ankara University
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been widely employed in phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies. In the present study, the genetic identification of the scorpion Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807) was carried out by using the 16S mitochondrial gene, since this scorpion represents the most important species in Turkey regarding scorpionism and antivenom production. Two genetic groups were found according to the sequence analysis results, while five different loci at the nucleotide level presented genetic variation in the 16S region when compared to a known A. crassicauda sequence data (GenBank, AJ277598). Nucleotide variations found in the current work constitute the first descriptive report for A. crassicauda. Moreover, future studies may enlighten the genetic and venom composition variations for this scorpion species. © CEVAP 2010.


Ozkan O.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency | Yagmur E.A.,Ege University | Ark M.,Gazi University
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Currently, medically significant scorpion species belong to the Buthidae family and are represented by the genera Androctonus, Buthus, Mesobuthus, Hottentotta, Parabuthus, Tityus, Centruroides, Leiurus. Although Leiurus was originally considered a monotypic genus, four additional species have since been described. Leiurus abdullahbayrami (previously identified as L. quinquestriatus in Turkey) was classified as a new Leiurus species. This is the first report conducted on the lethality and biologic effects of L. abdullahbayrami scorpion venom in mice. In this study, the electrophoretic protein pattern of its venom was also determined. Two protein bands with molecular masses of 4 and 6 kDa were more strongly detected than other protein bands in the venom sample. Electrophoresis showed that L. abdullahbayrami scorpion venom possesses both short- and long-chain neurotoxins. The median lethal dose of this venom was found to be 0.19 mg/kg by subcutaneous (SC) injection in mice. Animals experimentally envenomed with L. abdullahbayrami venom exhibited hyperexcitability, agitation, aggressive behavior, squeaking and fighting, tachypnea, weakness, convulsions, and death due to cardiac and respiratory failure. In further studies, the potency of antivenom should be investigated in relation to the scorpion venom. Molecular and pharmacological studies are also required to identify and characterize L. abdullahbayrami scorpion venom. © CEVAP 2011.


Ozkan O.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency | Ciftci G.,University of 19 May
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Mesobuthus gibbosus (Brullé, 1832) scorpions were collected from the Mugla province in the Aegean region of Turkey and housed in individual boxes. After extraction, the venom composition was analyzed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Interestingly, all scorpion venom samples contained only one protein band (~68 kDa) in common. Two protein bands (30 and 98 kDa) were common in six venom samples and were absent in the other venoms. Furthermore, two different protein bands (28 and 45 kDa) were detected in seven venom samples. This study proposes possible variations in the composition of individual scorpion venom samples collected from the same geographic region, based on the electrophoretic profile. Additional studies will be necessary in order to assess these variations further and to identify the proteins corresponding to the bands. © CEVAP 2010.


Cesaretli Y.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency | Ozkan O.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo | Year: 2010

The most important health-threatening scorpions found in Turkey are; Androctonus crassicauda, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Mesobuthus gibbosus and M. eupeus species, all of which belong to the Buthidae family. The epidemiological and clinical findings of scorpion stings in Turkey were evaluated between the years 1995 and 2004 based on data recorded in the National Poison Information Center (NPIC). A total of 930 cases were recorded. The cases mostly occurred in the month of July. The gender distribution was 50.22% female and 45.48% male. It was shown that the 20-29 age group presented more scorpion stings. Most of the stings occurred in Central Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Patients at the hospital showed signs of localized (pain, hyperemia, edema and numbness) and systemic effects (hyperthermia, nausea and vomiting, tachycardia, shivering and lethargy) but no lethality was notified. According to records, 33% of the poisoned patients were treated with antivenin in healthcare facilities.


Cesaretli Y.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency | Ozkan O.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

The venom of poisonous snakes comprises a complex mixture of several proteins with other less significant constituents, resulting in principles capable of changing viable tissues. The hemotoxic factor is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas of Turkey caused by snake species that present hepatotoxic venom, which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile. The epidemiological and clinical findings of snake envenomations in Turkey were evaluated based on data recorded by the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between 1995 and 2004, in a total of 550 snakebite cases. The month of peak incidence was June (24.3%) while most incidents occurred in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Black Sea regions of Turkey. The victims were mainly adults (54.1%). Hospitalized patients displayed clinical signs of local (75.2%) and systemic effects (24.7%). Local clinical symptoms comprised edema, pain, hyperemia, numbness and ecchymosis, while systemic clinical symptoms included nausea, vomiting, hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea, dry mouth, paresthesia, generalized edema, cyanosis and compartment syndrome. Occasionally, convulsions, confusion, loss of consciousness, hyperthermia, hepatic and circulation failure, hematoma, drowsiness, epistaxis, chest and abdominal pain, venous spasm, thrombocytopenia and bradycardia were recorded. Approximately one third (34.2%) of the patients were treated symptomatically, while 10.5% required antivenom therapy along with symptomatic treatments and 26.3% of all patients were exclusively treated with antivenom. Although a significant number of incidents were reported, no deaths occurred. These findings emphasize the presence of multiple medically important snake species in Turkey and that public awareness and therapeutic approaches appear sufficient to manage snakebite incidents. © CEVAP 2010.


Cesaretli Y.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency | Ozkan O.,Refik Saydam Public Health Agency
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between 1995 and 2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from the NPIC's patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects. Results: A total of 82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was 59.76% male, 37.20% female, and 2.44% unknown and the 20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in 60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia. Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites. © 2011 Hainan Medical College.


PubMed | Refik Saydam Public Health Agency
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo | Year: 2011

The most important health-threatening scorpions found in Turkey are; Androctonus crassicauda, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Mesobuthus gibbosus and M. eupeus species, all of which belong to the Buthidae family. The epidemiological and clinical findings of scorpion stings in Turkey were evaluated between the years 1995 and 2004 based on data recorded in the National Poison Information Center (NPIC). A total of 930 cases were recorded. The cases mostly occurred in the month of July. The gender distribution was 50.22% female and 45.48% male. It was shown that the 20-29 age group presented more scorpion stings. Most of the stings occurred in Central Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Patients at the hospital showed signs of localized (pain, hyperemia, edema and numbness) and systemic effects (hyperthermia, nausea and vomiting, tachycardia, shivering and lethargy) but no lethality was notified. According to records, 33% of the poisoned patients were treated with antivenin in healthcare facilities.


PubMed | Refik Saydam Public Health Agency
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine | Year: 2011

To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between 1995 and 2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from the NPICs patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.A total of 82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was 59.76% male, 37.20% female, and 2.44% unknown and the 20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in 60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

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