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Celik T.,Adiyaman University | Kamili O.,Inonu University | Babur C.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | Cevik M.O.,Adiyaman University | And 2 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Idiopathic Parkinson's disease defines a group of Parkinson's disease (PD) of which the aetiology is unknown but an underlying brain disease is suspected. We selected patients of this subgroup of PD and investigated the seropositivity rate for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody by SabinFeldman dye test (SFDT). By measuring seropositivity in PD patients, we searched for a probable relationship between Toxoplasma gondii infection and idiopathic PD incidence. Fifty patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD and 50 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from all 100 participants and anti-T. gondii antibody titres were investigated using SFDT. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected at a titre of ≥1/16 in 25 of the 50 patients (50%) and in 20 of the control group (40%). No higher antibody titre was found in the control group. In conclusion, despite the emerging literature on a possible relationship between T. gondii infection and neurological disease, and the high anti-T. gondii seropositivity found in our PD patients, we did not detect any statistically significant association between T. gondii and idiopathic PD. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Bayram Y.,Van Education and Research Hospital | Korkoca H.,Mus Alparslan University | Aypak C.,Van Gevas Hospital | Parlak M.,Van 100 Yil University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Purpose: Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and still constitutes a major public health problem. In the study we claimed to identify Brucella species from clinical samples of patients with active brucellosis from Van region of Eastern Anatolia and to determine in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of these strains to commonly used anti-Brucella agents and a possible new alternative tigecycline. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 Brucella isolates were enrolled the study and the identification of the isolates were based on conventional methods. In vitro activities of an-timicrobials were evaluated by the E test method. Results: All isolates were identified as B. melitensis. MIC90 values of doxycycline, strepto-mycin, rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tigecycline were 0.064 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L, 0.125 mg/L and 0.094 mg/L, respectively. Tigecycline had low MIC50 and MIC90 values against all B. melitensis strains; the highest MIC observed was 0.25 μg/mL. Conclusion: Our data suggest that tigecycline can be a therapeutic alternative option for the treatment of brucellosis. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Gazyagci S.,Kirikkale University | Macun H.C.,Kirikkale University | Babur C.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in mares and stallions in the province of Ankara. Sera from 168 clinically healthy horses were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the Sabin Feldman dye test. Toxoplasma gondii infection was determined in 62 (36.9%) of 168 horses with the titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256.


Cetinkaya F.,Uludag University | Mus T.E.,Uludag University | Cibik R.,Uludag University | Levent B.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | Gulesen R.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center
Food Control | Year: 2012

The present research was undertaken to assess the microbiological characteristics of cig kofte (spiced raw meatball) purchased from different retail markets in Bursa province of Turkey. The total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and sulphite-reducing anaerobic bacteria counts, as well as the presence or absence of Salmonella was tested by using standard microbiological methods. In the tested samples, the mean counts (CFU/g) of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, the coliforms, E. coli, S. aureus and the sulphite-reducing anaerobic bacteria were 5.5 × 10 6, 2.9 × 10 3, 2.6 × 10 2, 8.7 × 10 2 and 1 × 10 1 respectively. Salmonella were detected in two meatball samples (2%) and both of the isolates were serotyped as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates as performed by the disc diffusion method revealed that they are susceptible to all antibiotics tested. The relatively high bacterial counts and status of harbouring some foodborne pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, S. aureus and S. Typhimurium raise concerns regarding the hygienic quality of raw material and the handling process of cig kofte and its potential risks for public health. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Engin A.B.,Gazi University | Dogruman-Al F.,Gazi University | Ercin U.,Gazi University | Celebi B.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Toxoplasma gondii is a very common obligate single-cell protozoan parasite which induces overproduction of interferon (IFN)-gamma and of other proinflammatory cytokines. Although immunomodulatory role of IFN-gamma favors tryptophan (Trp) degradation via indoleamine-2,3- dioxygenase (IDO) activity and is related with nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, the mechanism of antitoxoplasma activity is complex. In order to characterize the Trp degradation pattern during the acute T. gondii infection, serum Trp, kynurenine (Kyn), and urinary biopterin levels of mice were measured. The possible oxidative status was evaluated by the liver, spleen, brain, and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels. Increased free radical toxicity may cause elevation in tissue MDA in T. gondii-infected mice, while unchanged serum MDA might indicate the increased oxidative stress due to T. gondii infection restricted to intracellular area. Elevated serum NO most probably might be due to the formation of reactive nitrogen radicals. The Kyn/Trp ratio was higher in T. gondii-infected mice compared to healthy animals (p<0.05); however, it was not correlated with urinary biopterin. These results suggested that Trp degradation might be promoted by a pathway other than IDO during T. gondii infection and the reduction of Trp concentration favors the local immunosuppression and systemic tolerance. ©Springer-Verlag 2012.


Bingol M.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | Yentur G.,Gazi University | Er B.,Gazi University | Oktem A.B.,Gazi University
Czech Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2010

Total number of 104 canned soft drinks collected from several regions in Turkey were analysed. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of heavy metals in the drinks commonly consumed in Turkey. Quantitative determination of heavy metals: arsenic, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead in all samples was carried out by ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrosmetry) method. The mean levels (± SE) of arsenic, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were found to be 0.037 ± 0.002 mg/kg, 0.070 ± 0.009 mg/kg, 0.143 ± 0.012 mg/kg, 0.005 ± 0.0003 mg/kg, and 0.029 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively, in soft drinks. Our data revealed that arsenic, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead mean levels found in all soft drinks, collected from several regions in Turkey, were within the Turkish Food Codex (TFC) values.


Utuk A.E.,Central Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Kirbas A.,Atatürk University | Babur C.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | Balkaya I.,Atatürk University
Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

This study was conducted on 11 camels, ranging in age from 2 months to 40 years. The aim of this study was to detect the Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and helminth parasites in camels. T. gondii antibodies were detected by Sabin-Feldman Dye Test (SFDT), and faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn flotation and Benedek sedimentation methods. As a result of the study, T. gondii antibodies were detected in 10 out of 11 (90.9%) camels. Detected helminths consisted of 63.63% (7/11) Trishostrongyloidea spp., 45.45% (5/11) Trichuris spp. and 9.09% (1/11) Dicrocoelium dendriticum.


Nar Otgun S.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | Durmaz R.,Molecular Microbiology Research and Application Laboratory | Karagoz A.,Molecular Microbiology Research and Application Laboratory | Esen B.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | Ertek M.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Our purpose was to evaluate the natural epidemiological history of circulating Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates in Turkey, comparing isolates by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles according to years, geographic regions, vaccination status, and demographic characteristics. We analyzed genotypically a collection of 92 clinical isolates recovered during the period 2001-2009 at the National Pertussis Reference Laboratory by PFGE. A total of 61 genotypes were identified among the 92 isolates. Fifteen of 61 genotypes were a cluster including 46 isolates, and the remaining 46 genotypes were unique. The clustering rate was 50% (46/92). The size of the cluster varied from 2 to 14 clinical isolates. There was no association between clustering rates and age, gender, or quarterly season. The clustering rate was significantly higher in 2006. When the isolates were grouped according to similarity coefficient higher than 85%, 89 (96.7%) of the 92 isolates were clonally related. There was one major group including 65.2% of the isolates mainly observed. This is the first study on the molecular characterization of B. pertussis isolates in Turkey. We consider that this study lays a good foundation for further monitoring of the circulating B. pertussis clinical isolates in Turkey. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Duranoglu L.,Gulhane Military Medical Academy | Snmez C.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | Vurucu S.,Gulhane Military Medical Academy | Kurtoglu D.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center | And 5 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

It has recently been reported that the worldwide increase in the number of pertussis cases is a result of the waning of whole-cell vaccine-induced immunity. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate the pertussis immunity status of primary and secondary school students in a district of Ankara, Turkey. A total of 997 healthy students, aged 9-17 years, who had been immunized with four doses of whole-cell pertussis vaccine were included in the study. The subjects were divided into two age groups: 9-14 and 15-17 years. To determine the immune status, serum levels of IgG anti-pertussis toxin (aPT) antibody were tested by in-house ELISA and arbitrarily evaluated as non-immune [<10 ELISA units (EU)/ml], immune (10-100 EU/ml), and recent infection (>100 EU/ml). Serum samples of 997 students (559 females, 438 males) aged between 9 and 17 years (mean 13.02±2.25, median 13 years) were tested. Non-immune, immune and recent infection levels of aPT were found in 273%, 593% and 134% of individuals, respectively. The immune group did not have statistically significant differences between males and females (P=068). In the 9-14 and 15-17 years age groups, serum aPT antibody levels 10 EU/ml were 731% and 722%, respectively, which did not represent any statistical difference (P=081). Students aged 15-17 years had a higher immunity rate than the 9-14 years group, and the percentage of students with recent infection in the 9-14 years group was higher than the 15-17 years group (P<0001). The peak age of non-immunized subjects was 9 years (470%), and decreased to a minimum at age 12-13 years, and began to increase again from age 13-14 years. In contrast, the ratio of recent infection was least at age 9-10 years, began to increase, and reached a peak at 12 years, and then decreased. On the other hand, it was observed that household size and monthly income were not associated with the immunity status (P=065, P=037, respectively). The results of the present study show that levels of antibody against pertussis decreased in the younger age groups and, as a result, there is an increase in the number of pertussis cases. Thus, in order to decrease the incidence of pertussis and protect infants, we recommend the application of booster doses at regular intervals. © 2009 Cambridge University Press.


Yousefi Rad A.,Private MESA Hospital | Gozalan A.,Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center
Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

Objective: One of the most important reasons of mortality, especially in childhood, is infectious diarrheas. As their epidemiology is not well known in Turkey, the aim of this study is to characterize the distribution of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus and adenovirus by age groups. Material and Methods: Determination of rotavirus and adenovirus antigens in stool samples of 2.962 patients admitted to MESA hospital with the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis between January 2005 and June 2008 as carried out by the immunochromatographic method. Results: 605 of 2.962 stool samples were found to have viral antigens. 483 of those positive samples were found to be positive for rotavirus, and 77 of them were found to be positive for adenovirus. Forty five of the samples tested were positive for both virus antigens. Additionally, rotavirus and adenovirus associated gastroenteritis was observed most frequently in the 0-5 year-old group; and rotavirus was more common during winter, while adenovirus was observed throughout the year. Conclusion: In this study, it was shown that rotavirus and adenovirus were more significant causes of gastroenteritis, especially in winter among 0-5-year old group. It must also be stated that rapid and effective diagnostic methods are important to prevent unnecessary antibiotic usage, and to reduce the development of antibacterial resistance. © 2010 by Türkiye Klinikleri.

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