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Botulism is a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease, caused by Clostridium botulinum toxins. Botulinium toxin is one of the most potent toxins in nature. Foodborne botulism is caused by foods particularly canned foods (home/commercial) but also by sausages, meat products and seafoods. Here we described four adult foodborne poisoning cases caused by home-made canned red pepper. Intensive care monitoring and antitoxin therapy were initialised immediately. After the patients were intubated and antitoxins administered, symptoms improved in two days for one patient, seven days in another and twenty-one days in the remaining two patients. Rapid improvement of symptoms is thought to be related to intensive care and antitoxin therapy © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Certel M.,Akdeniz University | Cengiz M.F.,Akdeniz University | Akcay M.,Refik Saydam Hygiene Center
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

Background: The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of mancozeb degradation in tomato homogenates under the conditions prevailing in the manufacture of tomato products (at 60-100 °C for 0-60 min) were investigated. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used to analyse residual mancozeb in tomato homogenate. Ethylenethiourea (ETU), the main toxic degradation product of mancozeb, was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-with photodiode array detector (PDA). Results: The degradation of mancozeb and the formation of ETU in tomato homogenates were adequately described as first-order kinetics. Dependence of the rate constant followed the Arrhenius relationship. Apparent activation energies, temperature coefficients, half time and time to reduce to 90% of the initial value of mancozeb were calculated as kinetic parameters. The thermodynamic parameters of mancozeb were also described as Δg d = - 2.440 and 7.074 kJ mol -1; Δh d = - 32.555 and - 42.767 kJ mol -1; Δs d = - 0.090 and - 0.150 kJ mol -1 K -1; K e = 0.414 and 9.797 L g -1 for 333 and 373 K respectively. Conclusion: Current findings may shed light on the reduction of mancozeb residue and its toxic degradation product during thermal processing of tomatoes and may also be valuable in awareness and prevention of potential risks from dietary exposure. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Haciomeroglu M.,Refik Saydam Hygiene Center | Ozkul A.,Ankara University | Bagriacik U.,Gazi University | Akinci E.,Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital | Bodur H.,Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases

SUMMARY: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, causes a severe disease in humans with high mortality rates. In Turkey, the number of patients with CCHF has increased since 2002. Here, we aimed to treat CCHF patients with CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin. We prepared a CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin product from 22 individuals who survived CCHF infection. A total of 26 CCHF patients were enrolled into this study. For CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin administration, a Kubar Unit (KU) was defined. As a standard therapeutic approach, 400 KU of hyperimmunoglobulin were given to each patient as a single dose before viral load was detected. We used one-step real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR to monitor the viral load of CCHF patients. According to the one-step real-time PCR results, 15 patients with a viral load of 10 8 copies/mL or more were defined as high risk. In this high-risk group, the survival rate was found to be 86.6% (13/15) and 2 patients died despite CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin administration. CCHF is a very serious and highly fatal infection, particularly for patients in the defined high-risk group. Prompt administration of CCHFV hyperimmunoglobulin might be a very promising new treatment approach, especially for high-risk individuals. Source

Altundas A.,Gazi University | Sari N.,Gazi University | Colak N.,Hitit University | Ogutcu H.,Refik Saydam Hygiene Center
Medicinal Chemistry Research

A series of some novel Ethyl 2-((1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)methyleneamino)- 5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiopehene-3-carboxylate, Ethyl 2-((1- hydroxynaphthalen- 2-yl)methyleneamino)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3- carboxylate, Ethyl 2-((1-hydroxynaphtalen-2-yl)methyleneamino)-5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-4H-cyclohepta [b]thiophene-3-carboxylate and their Cr(III) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized. All of these substances have been examined for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains Listeria monocytogenes 4b (ATCC-19115), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Proteus OX2 Wrah (ETS.40-A-4), Escherichia coli (ATCC-1280), Salmonella typhi H (NCTC-901.8394), Pseudomonas putida sp., Brucella abortus (A.99, UK-1995) RSKK-03026. Sh. boydii type 11 (Pasteur51.6), Sh. boydii type 16 (cHe 67.11), Sh. boydii type 6 (RSKK-96043), and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (Y-1200-NIH, Tokyo). Some of the compounds exhibited activity comparable to ampicillin ofloxacin, nystatin, kanamycin, sulphamethoxazol, amoxycillin, and chloroamphenicol. Most of the studied compounds were found effective against bacteria studied and yeast. © Birkhäuser Boston 2009. Source

Buyuktanir O.,Refik Saydam Hygiene Center | Buyuktanir O.,Ondokuz Mayis University | Akan M.,Ankara University | Ozcengiz E.,Refik Saydam Hygiene Center | Ozcengiz E.,Hacettepe University
Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi

Fimbrial proteins are important for adhesion and colonization of Bordetella bronchiseptica in the upper respiratory tract. In this study, determination of immunogenicity of the fimbrial proteins isolated from different strains of B. bronchiseptica and their protective efficacy against letal challenge was aimed. For this purpose, fimbrial proteins of seven standard strains and clinical isolates of B. bronchiseptica were partially purified by gel filtration chromatography and analysed by SDSPAGE. In microagglutination test, whole cell F415 was used as the antigen and the agglutination of sera from mice immunized with the purified fimbrial proteins was observed at titers of 1:128 for strains 219 and 4617 and the isolate CA; 1:256 for strain F415 and the isolate UK7; 1:512 for the isolate UK6 and 1:4096 for strain 3036. In addition, by ELISA against F415 fimbrial antigen, the anti-fimbriae antibody levels of the immune mouse sera were observed at serum dilutions of 1:6400 for UK7; 1:3200 for UK6, F415 and 3036; 1:1600 for CA; 1:800 for 219 and 1:400 for 4617. The protective values of the fimbrial proteins against letal challenge with strain F415 in mice immunized with the fimbrial proteins (2x25 μg/dose) were; 100% for F415 and 3036, 84% for UK6 and 50% for UK7, but no protection was observed with the other strains and isolates. In conclusion, fimbrial antigens were determined to have important protective efficacy and anti-fimbriae antibody levels were found correlated with that protective efficacy. Source

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