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Connes P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Connes P.,University of Antilles Guyane | Connes P.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Verlhac S.,Center Hospitalier Intercommunal | Bernaudin F.,Referral Center for Sickle Cell Disease
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2013

Cerebral vasculopathy is the most severe complication to affect children with sickle cell anaemia and its pathophysiology is complex. Traditionally, small-vessel occlusion by intravascular sickling and sludging was considered to underlie the strokes but, in the last 20 years, progressive major cerebral vessel involvement has become recognized as the principal responsible factor. Macrovasculopathy is well detected by abnormally high velocities on transcranial Doppler and with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and is responsible for the majority of overt strokes. Silent infarcts are ischaemic lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients without history of stroke. They are associated with compromised cognitive functioning. The present review discusses the pathophysiologal mechanisms that could be involved in the development of cerebral vasculopathy, such as inflammation and hypoxia, anaemia, haemolysis and the resulting decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, genetic factors, impaired blood rheology and particular local haemodynamic profiles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Bernaudin F.,Referral Center for Sickle Cell Disease | Verlhac S.,Referral Center for Sickle Cell Disease | Verlhac S.,University Paris Est Creteil | Arnaud C.,Referral Center for Sickle Cell Disease | And 10 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2016

Stroke risk in sickle cell anemia (SCA), predicted by high transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocities, is prevented by transfusions. We present the long-term follow-up of SCA children from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2012) detected at risk by TCD and placed on chronic transfusions. Patients with normalized velocities and no stenosis were treated with hydroxyurea, known to decrease anemia and hemolytic rate. Trimestrial Doppler was performed and transfusions restarted immediately in the case of reversion to abnormal velocities. Patients with a genoidentical donor underwent transplant. Abnormal timeaveragedmaximummeanvelocities(TAMMV)≥200 cm/s were detected in 92SCAchildren at a mean age of 3.7 years (range, 1.3-8.3 years). No stroke occurred posttransfusion after a mean follow-up of 6.1 years. Normalization of velocities (TAMMV < 170 cm/s) was observed in 83.5% of patients. Stenosis, present in 27.5% of patients, was associated with the risk of non-normalization (P <.001). Switch from transfusions to hydroxyurea was prescribed for 45 patients, with a mean follow-up of 3.4 years. Reversion, predicted by baseline reticulocyte count ≥400 3 109/L (P <.001), occurred in 28.9% (13/45) patients at the mean age of 7.1 years (range, 4.3-9.5 years). Transplant, performed in 24 patients, allowed transfusions to be safely stopped in all patients and velocities to be normalized in 4 patients who still had abnormal velocities on transfusions. This long-term cohort study shows that transfusions can be stopped not only in transplanted patients but also in a subset of patients switched to hydroxyurea, provided trimestrial Doppler follow-up and immediate restart of transfusions in the case of reversion. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Bernaudin F.,Referral Center for Sickle Cell Disease | Verlhac S.,Center Hospitalier Intercommunal | Arnaud C.,Referral Center for Sickle Cell Disease | Kamdem A.,Referral Center for Sickle Cell Disease | And 19 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is used to detect children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) who are at risk for stroke, and transfusion programs significantly reduce stroke risk in patients with abnormal TCD. We describe the predictive factors and outcomes of cerebral vasculopathy in the Créteil newborn SCA cohort (n = 217 SS/Sβ0), who were early and yearly screened with TCD since 1992. Magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography was performed every 2 years after age 5 (or earlier in case of abnormal TCD). Atransfusion program was recommended to patients with abnormal TCD and/or stenoses, hydroxyurea to symptomatic patients in absence of macrovasculopathy, and stem cell transplantation to those with human leukocyte antigen- genoidentical donor. Mean follow-up was 7.7 years (1609 patient-years). The cumulative risks by age 18 years were 1.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.6%-5.9%) for overt stroke, 29.6% (95% CI 22.8%-38%) for abnormal TCD, which reached a plateau at age 9, whereas they were 22.6% (95% CI 15.0%-33.2%) for stenosis and 37.1% (95% CI 26.3%-50.7%) for silent stroke by age 14. Cumulating all events (stroke, abnormal TCD, stenoses, silent strokes), the cerebral risk by age 14 was 49.9% (95% CI 40.5%-59.3%); the independent predictive factors for cerebral risk were baseline reticulocytes count (hazard ratio 1.003/L x 10 9/L increase, 95% CI 1.000-1.006; P = .04) and lactate dehydrogenase level (hazard ratio 2.78/1 IU/mL increase, 95% CI1.33-5.81; P = .007). Thus, early TCD screening and intensification therapy allowed the reduction of stroke-risk by age 18 from the previously reported 11% to 1.9%. In contrast, the 50% cumulative cerebral risk suggests the need for more preventive intervention. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Bernaudin F.,University Paris Est Creteil | Verlhac S.,Referral Center for Sickle Cell Disease | Arnaud C.,University Paris Est Creteil | Kamdem A.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 8 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

Early transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening of the Créteil sickle cell anemia (SCA)-newborn cohort, and rapid initiation of transfusion programs, resulted in successful prevention of overt strokes, but a high cumulative risk of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) remained, suggesting that TCD screening does not identify all patients withSCAat risk for SCI. We hypothesized that episodes of hypoperfusion/hypoxia, as observed during acute chest syndromes or acute anemic events (AAE), and extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) stenoses, detectable via submandibular Doppler sonography and cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), could also be risk factors for SCI. This study includes 189 stroke-free patients with SCA from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2010) followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging/MRA, including cervical MRA at the last assessment. All patients with abnormal TCD and/or intracranial stenoses were placed on a transfusion program. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 2.2-19.9 years; 1844 patient-years). Annual rates of clinical events were calculated. The cumulative risk for SCI was 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5%-54.7%) by age 18 years, with no plateau. We confirm that baseline hemoglobin level lower than 7 g/dL before age 3 years is a highly significant predictive risk factor for SCI (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.43-6.17; P 5.004). Furthermore, we show that AAErate (odds ratio, 2.64 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.09-6.38; P5.031) and isolated eICA stenosis (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.18-8.70; P 5.023) are significant and independent risk factors for SCI. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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