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Iles J.C.,University of Oxford | Abby Harrison G.L.,University of Oxford | Lyons S.,University of Edinburgh | Djoko C.F.,Global Viral | And 11 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

The prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV) in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa is poorly characterized, including in the Democratic Republic of Congo - the largest country in the region and one of the most populous. To address this situation we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of HCV and HPgV (previously named GB Virus C or hepatitis G virus) in samples collected in 2007 from 299 males from the DRC, whose ages ranged from 21 to 71. years old. Samples were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies by ELISA and reactive samples were subsequently tested for HCV RNA using RT-PCR in which both the HCV Core and NS5B genome regions were amplified. Remaining samples were tested for HPgV RNA and the HPgV NS3 genome region of positive samples was amplified. For HCV, 13.7% of the samples were seropositive (41/299) but only 3.7% were viremic (11/299). HPgV RNA was found in 12.7% (33/259) of samples. HCV viremia was strongly associated with age; the percentage of samples that contained detectable HCV RNA was ~0.5% in those younger than 50 and 13% in those older than 50. Our study represents the first systematic survey of HCV genetic diversity in the DRC. HCV sequences obtained belonged to diverse lineages of genotype 4, including subtypes 4c, 4k, 4l and 4r, plus one unclassified lineage that may constitute a new subtype. These data suggest that HCV in the DRC exhibits an age 'cohort effect', as has been recently reported in neighbouring countries, and are consistent with the hypothesis that HCV transmission rates were higher in the mid-twentieth century, possibly as a result of parenteral, iatrogenic, or other unidentified factors. Different HCV subtypes were associated with individuals of different ages, implying that HCV infection in the DRC may have arisen through multiple separate HCV epidemics with different causes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Badjie K.S.W.,Transfusion Laboratory | Tauscher C.,Reference Laboratory | Van Buskirk C.,Mayo Medical School | Wong C.,Gulf Coast Regional Blood Center | Stubbs J.R.,Reference Pathology Laboratory
Immunohematology | Year: 2011

Patients requiring chronic transfusion support are at risk of alloimmunization after red blood cell (RBC) transfusion because of a disparity between donor and recipient antigen profiles. This research explored the probability of obtaining an exact extended phenotype match between blood donors randomly selected from our institution and patients randomly selected from particular ethnic groups. Blood samples from 1,000 blood donors tested by molecular method were evaluated for the predicted phenotype distribution of Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS. A random subsample of 800 donor phenotypes was then evaluated for the probability of obtaining an exact match with respect to phenotype with a randomly selected patient from a particular ethnic group. Overall, there was a greater than 80 percent probability of finding an exact donor-recipient match for the K/k alleles in the Kell system. The probability ranged from 3 percent to 38 percent, depending on the ethnicity and disparities in phenotypic profiles, for the Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems. A significant donor-recipient phenotype mismatch ratio exists with certain blood group antigens such that, with current routine ABO and D matching practices, recipients of certain ethnic groups are predisposed to alloimmunization.


PubMed | Global Viral, Metabiota, National Institute of Biomedical Research, Stanford University and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Virology | Year: 2014

HCV genotype 4 is prevalent in many African countries, yet little is known about the genotypes epidemic history on the continent. We present a comprehensive study of the molecular epidemiology of genotype 4. To address the deficit of data from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) we PCR amplified 60 new HCV isolates from the DRC, resulting in 33 core- and 48 NS5B-region sequences. Our data, together with genotype 4 database sequences, were analysed using Bayesian phylogenetic approaches. We find three well-supported intra-genotypic lineages and estimate that the genotype 4 common ancestor existed around 1733 (1650-1805). We show that genotype 4 originated in central Africa and that multiple lineages have been exported to north Africa since ~1850, including subtype 4a which dominates the epidemic in Egypt. We speculate on the causes of the historical intra-continental spread of genotype 4, including population movements during World War 2.


News Article | December 20, 2016
Site: marketersmedia.com

— The report "Liquid Biopsy Market Cancer Type (Lung, Breast, Colorectal, Prostate, Liver), Circulating Biomarkers (Circulating Tumor Cells, Circulating Tumor DNA), Product (Instruments, Software), End User (Reference Laboratory, Research Centers) - Forecast to 2021", provides a detailed overview of the major drivers, restraints, challenges, opportunities, current market trends, and strategies impacting the liquid biopsy market along with the estimates and forecasts of the revenue. The liquid biopsy market is expected to reach USD 1.66 Billion by 2021 from USD 0.58 Billion in 2016, growing at a CAGR of 23.4% during this period. A number of factors, such as the rising incidence of cancer, benefits of liquid biopsy over solid tumor biopsy, technological advancements, availability of funding, and growing awareness about liquid biopsy through conferences and government initiatives, are driving the growth of the market. However, unclear regulatory and reimbursement scenario is the major area of concern in this market. In this report, the liquid biopsy market is segmented on the basis of cancer type, circulating biomarkers, products & services, end users, and regions. Based on cancer type, the market is segmented into lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, liver cancer, and other cancers. The other cancers segment includes melanoma, bladder cancer, and ovarian cancer. In 2016, the lung cancer segment is expected to account for the largest share of the market, followed by breast cancer. Based on circulating biomarkers, the liquid biopsy market is categorized into four major segments, namely, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), Extracellular Vesicles (EVs), and other biomarkers. The other biomarkers segment includes circulating RNA and proteins. The circulating tumor cells segment is expected to account for the largest share of the global market in 2016, followed by the circulating tumor DNA segment. Based on products and services, the market is segmented into instruments, reagents, and services and software. Based on end user, the liquid biopsy market is segmented into reference laboratories, hospital/physician laboratories, academic and research centers, and other end users. The other end-users segment includes public health laboratories, pathology laboratories, and small molecular laboratories. In 2016, North America is expected to account for the largest share of the global market. The large share of this regional segment can be attributed to factors such as easy accessibility and high adoption of advanced diagnostic technologies, such as PCR and NGS, among healthcare professionals; increasing prevalence of cancer in the U.S. and Canada; and continuous technological advancements in liquid biopsy. The Asia-Pacific market, however, is estimated to witness the highest growth during the forecast period owing to the increasing focus of market players on this region. Biocept Inc. (U.S.), Myriad Genetics (U.S.), QIAGEN (Netherlands), Roche (Switzerland), Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc. (U.S.), Trovagene Inc. (U.S.), Guardant Health, Inc. (U.S.), Janssen Diagnostics, LLC (U.S.), Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (Germany), and MDxHealth SA (U.S.) are the major players in the liquid biopsy market. For more information, please visit http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/liquid-biopsy-market-13966350.html


Zheng B.-J.,Peking Union Medical College | Yin Y.-P.,Reference Laboratory | Han Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Shi M.-Q.,Peking Union Medical College | And 5 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Although Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI), very little information regarding the prevalence of MG among MSM (men who have sex with men) is available in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MG among MSM in the city of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with MG infection in this population. Methods. Between January and May 2010, a total of 409 MSM were recruited in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information regarding their sociological and sexual behaviors. In addition, their first-void urine (FVU) samples and rectal swabs were collected for PCR-based MG testing. Results: Among the 406 FVU and 405 rectal swab samples were collected from 409 MSM, the overall MG prevalence was 8.1% (33/406, 95% CI 5.7%-10.6%), with a FVU positivity of 3.4% (95% CI 1.7%-5.4%) and a rectal positivity of 5.4% (95% CI 3.5%-7.7%). Using both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, urethral MG infection was significantly associated with having more heterosexual behaviors (AOR 7.16, 95% CI 1.89-27.13), and with having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months (AOR 4.80, 95% CI 1.40-16.47). Rectal MG infection was significantly associated with HIV infection based on univariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 4.49, 95% CI 1.18-17.12). Conclusions: In this study, we investigated the prevalence of MG infection in the population of interest, as determined from both urethral and rectal specimen. We showed that MG was more prevalent in MSM who had bisexual behaviors compared to those who engaged only in homosexual behaviors. Further work is needed to establish the mode of MG transmission and to identify its role in HIV transmission. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to MG infection among MSMs, and especially bisexual MSMs, which might have critical implications for effective HIV/STD control in China. © 2014 Zheng et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Latipov R.,Reference Laboratory | Khudoyorov R.,Scientific Center for Emergency Medicine | Flem E.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Background: Estimates of baseline incidence of childhood intussusception could help safety monitoring after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. We studied the incidence of intussusception in Uzbekistan, a GAVI-fund eligible state in Central Asia.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed intussusception cases in children <2 years of age treated during 2004-2008 at 15 hospitals in the Bukhara region of Uzbekistan. Demographic and clinical data as well as information on diagnostic and treatment practices were obtained from hospital records. We categorized cases using the Brighton collaboration clinical case definition and calculated the national incidence rate.Results: Over a 5-year study period, 67 confirmed cases were identified, of which 67% were boys. The median age was 12 months, and no seasonal trend in the distribution of cases was observed. The diagnostic methods used included abdominal radiography (87%) and ultrasonography (57%). Intussusception reduction by air enema was successful in 33 (49%) patients and 34 (50%) cases underwent surgery. A total of 4 deaths occurred, including 3 deaths in infants aged 0-6 months. The median length of hospital stay was 7.3 (range 0-37) days. The incidence of intussusception is estimated at 23 (95% CI 13.6-32.4) cases per 100,000 child-years, corresponding to approximately 237 cases annually.Conclusions: This is the first study to estimate the incidence of childhood intussusception prior to the introduction of the rotavirus vaccination in Uzbekistan. A prospective surveillance system using a standardized case definition is needed in order to better examine the occurrence of intussusception in developing countries. © 2011 Latipov et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


News Article | November 30, 2015
Site: phys.org

After DNA extraction, samples are prepared for the determination of GMO. © EU The JRC has published a new database, JRC GMO-Amplicons, which contains more than 240 000 DNA sequences appearing in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It will help to verify the presence of GMOs in food, feed and environment. To date, this new database is the largest and most comprehensive in this area and could be key to developing new methods for detecting GMOs in food and feed. The number of genetically modified (GM) crops, their complexity and the related cultivation area are steadily increasing worldwide. In the EU, only one variety of maize (corn) is currently grown commercially but GM varieties of maize, cotton, soybean, oilseed rape and sugar beet are authorised for import into the EU for food and feed uses. The authorisation is granted for new products if they do not pose threats to human or animal health or to the environment. According to EU Regulation on labelling, labels have to specify if the product contains GMOs. Correct labelling requires methods for GMO detection, identification and quantification and allows consumers to make informed decisions. These methods detect one or more short DNA sequences (amplicons) characteristic of the GMO genomes, i.e. they are able to detect if GMOs are present in the product. The new JRC GMO-Amplicons database was compiled by collecting information from a large number of publicly available databanks through an automatic computer-based procedure, called "Bioinformatics pipeline", developed by the JRC experts. The database provides information on amplicons present in GMOs that are authorised in the EU and also those described either in a publication, patent, or public database (even if not authorised). This makes JRC GMO-Amplicons the most comprehensive source for the detection of DNA target sequences currently available. The new database is easily accessible via the web and helps laboratories to identify suitable target-sequences for developing detection methods, especially for unauthorised GMOs. The reliable detection of GMOs is pivotal for the enforcement of regulations on GMO authorisation and labelling. In the context of the GMO authorisation process, the European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed of the JRC is responsible for validating, developing and optimising methods for the detection of GMOs, and harmonising their correct application throughout the EU. It also is responsible for making tools and methods available to the control laboratories. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is the third publicly available tool that has been developed by the JRC in the GMO field, together with the JRC GMO-Matrix and the GMOMETHODS database, a decision support tool to optimise the detection of GMOs and the EU database of reference methods for GMO analysis, respectively. They all together will contribute to make the analysis of GMOs in the food chain more efficient and cost-effective. Explore further: Scientists develop robust method for analysis of intestinal bacteria


Kress M.,Reference Laboratory | Meissner D.,Reference Laboratory | Kramer U.,Reference Laboratory | Spannagl M.,Reference Laboratory | Kaiser P.,Reference Laboratory
Clinical Laboratory | Year: 2014

Background: We developed and validated a measurement procedure for glucose using liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed method is intended to be used for setting target values in EQAS samples and for certification of glucose reference materials, including those in biological matrices.Methods: Serum samples were spiked with internal standard 13C6 D-glucose. Protein precipitation was performed with ethanol. The samples were vortexed and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant was evaporated to dryness, the residue dissolved in elution buffer and injected into the LC-MSIMS system. Measurements were performed in the positive ion mode monitoring the Cs+ adducts for glucose at m/z 313 → 132.9 and m/z 319 → 132.9 for the internal standard.Results: The coefficient of variation (CV) of the measurement procedure for lyophilized, liquid, and fresh serum samples was between 0.27 and 1.77%. The bias from certified target values for NIST reference materials was ≤ 0.62%. A Deming regression comparison demonstrated a good correlation of results obtained with the proposed LC-ID-MSIMS method and target values obtained in the internationally accepted IFCC-RELA ring trial using JCTLM-recognized reference measurement procedures.Conclusions: The proposed LC-ID-MS!MS measurement procedure with traceability to SI units shows excellent accuracy and precision and is suitable for use as reference measurement procedure for certification of target values in lyophilized and fresh serum samples. © Copyright.


Although Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI), very little information regarding the prevalence of MG among MSM (men who have sex with men) is available in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MG among MSM in the city of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with MG infection in this population.Between January and May 2010, a total of 409 MSM were recruited in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information regarding their sociological and sexual behaviors. In addition, their first-void urine (FVU) samples and rectal swabs were collected for PCR-based MG testing.Among the 406 FVU and 405 rectal swab samples were collected from 409 MSM, the overall MG prevalence was 8.1% (33/406, 95% CI 5.7%-10.6%), with a FVU positivity of 3.4% (95% CI 1.7%-5.4%) and a rectal positivity of 5.4% (95% CI 3.5%-7.7%). Using both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, urethral MG infection was significantly associated with having more heterosexual behaviors (AOR 7.16, 95% CI 1.89-27.13), and with having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months (AOR 4.80, 95% CI 1.40-16.47). Rectal MG infection was significantly associated with HIV infection based on univariate logistic regression analysis (OR=4.49, 95% CI 1.18-17.12).In this study, we investigated the prevalence of MG infection in the population of interest, as determined from both urethral and rectal specimen. We showed that MG was more prevalent in MSM who had bisexual behaviors compared to those who engaged only in homosexual behaviors. Further work is needed to establish the mode of MG transmission and to identify its role in HIV transmission. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to MG infection among MSMs, and especially bisexual MSMs, which might have critical implications for effective HIV/STD control in China.


Gupta N.,Reference Laboratory
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Hemangiomas of the pericardium are very rare primary pericardial tumours. Very few cases of pericardial hemangioma have been reported in the literature till date. We are reporting a case of a 40 years old male who presented with the complaints of chest discomfort and palpitation on exertion, of 3 months duration. ECHO and Colour Doppler ECHO which were done, revealed a large heterogeneous mass which measured 7.6 × 7.1cms, which was possibly attached to the roof and the anterior surface of the left atria, which was possibly a myxoma. Based on the radiological findings, a diagnosis of left atrial myxoma was considered. However, intra operatively, an encapsulated mass was seen within the pericardium, which was successfully excised and sent for histopathology. The histopathological examination revealed an intrapericardial hemangioma. This case has been reported on account of its extreme rarity.

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