Newman M.J.,University of Ghana |
Frimpong E.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology |
Donkor E.S.,University of Ghana |
Opintan J.A.,University of Ghana |
Asamoah-Adu A.,Public Health Reference Laboratory
Infection and Drug Resistance | Year: 2011
Background: Antimicrobial drug resistance is a global issue that affects health, economic, and social development. The problem has been attributed to misuse of antimicrobial agents. Purpose: To identify the agents of bacterial infection in Ghana, determine their antibiogram, and the possibility of setting up a surveillance program. Patients and methods: A prospective quantitative study set in various hospitals including two teaching hospitals, seven regional hospitals, and two district hospitals in Ghana. A total of 5099 bacterial isolates from various clinical specimens were collected over a period of 1 year, including data related to the patients. Susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of multidrug-resistant isolates of epidemiological significance was also determined using the E-test. Results: A wide range of bacterial isolates were identified in both teaching and regional hospitals. High percentage of resistance was observed for tetracycline (82%), cotrimoxazole (73%), ampicillin (76%), and chloramphenicol (75%). Multidrug resistance was observed to a combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. On the other hand, a lower percentage of resistance was observed for ceftriaxone (6.3%), ciprofloxacin (11%), and amikacin (9.9%). Conclusion: Generally, the prevalence of multidrug resistance was widespread among the various isolates. Some multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) had high MIC to cefuroxime (>256), gentamicin (>256), and ciprofloxacin (>32). © 2011 Newman et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.