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Eftekhari N.,Tarbiat Modares University | Eftekhari N.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Bakhshi B.,Tarbiat Modares University | Pourshafie M.R.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | And 5 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and resistance gene content of class 1 and 2 integrons among Shigella spp. and to study the genetic diversity of isolates using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Methods and Results: A total of 32 Shigella spp. were identified from 700 stool samples of patients with diarrhea from two provinces in Iran. S. sonnei (70.8%) and S. flexneri (62.5%) were the most frequent serogroups in Tehran and Razavi Khorasan provinces, respectively. Class 2 integrons were more frequent among Shigella spp. in comparison with class 1 integrons. Three different resistance gene arrays were identified among class 1 integrons. Dihydrofolate reductase (dfrA) gene cassette was detected in 78.9% of total integrons (class 1 and 2). PFGE analysis revealed clonal dissemination (62.5%) of a single clone with identical class 2 resistance gene content in Tehran province. Comparison of our Shigella pulsotypes with those published from other countries showed similar pulsotypes in India and Korea, with identical resistance profiles, which suggests dissemination of this (these) clone(s) in Asian countries. Conclusions: Class 2 integrons were found to be predominant among our Shigella spp. This reflects the need to monitor the acquisition and dissemination of different resistant gene cassettes among integrons. Comparison of PFGE pattern through standard procedures promoted the molecular epidemiological surveys and identification of clonal isolates in Iran and other Asian countries. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Mousavi S.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jahed Khaniki G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Eskandari S.,Food and Drug Control Reference Laboratories Center | Rabiei M.,Food and Drug Control Reference Laboratories Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

Identifying of the species origin in meat and meat products is important for preventing adulteration and protecting consumers in terms of health and religious convictions. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been known as a suitable method for identifying meat species; however, there is little information on applicability of this method for the detection of fraudulent actions in different food products. This study aimed to evaluate a species-specific PCR assay for the detecting of chicken and donkey meats as adulterants in raw ground meats. Specificity of the primer sets was tested against the target species. The method was applied to the binary meat mixtures of the target species with the detection limits ranged from 0.1% to 10% (w/w). Also, 91 ground beef samples and 53 mixtures of ground beef and lamb samples were collected from local butcheries and tested in order to evaluate the applicability of this method. The oligonucleotide primers amplified mitochondrial DNA sequences and revealed PCR products with expected sizes of 300, 225, 183 and 145 base pair from cattle, sheep, chicken and donkey respectively. PCR assay performed on the experimental meat mixtures showed the detection limit of 0.1% for all primer sets. Results demonstrated that 47.2% and 0.7% of all the samples contained chicken and donkey meats respectively. This method of detection can be applied by quality control laboratories and inspection services to determine adulteration in raw ground meat under certain circumstances. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Rafizadeh S.,Reference Health Laboratories Research Center | Rafinejad J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rassi Y.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases

Background: Scorpion sting is a major health problem in Iran. The aim of current study was to measure the incidence rates of scorpion stings, mortality, recovery, and affected age groups. The results of treatment with and without anti venom also were considered in the entire country during 2009.Methods: All the data were collected from emergency section of different hospitals and then were analyzed by related software. The responsibility of such data collection and surveillance is related to the Department of Violence and Injury, Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran.Results: A total incidence of 59.5/100000 was found for the 12-month period. During the study period the most and the least cases were reported from Khuzestan and Mazandaran Provinces with incidence of 541 and 0 per 100000 respectively. Totally 40220 anti venom vials were used, i.e., the ratio of 91 vial/ 100 affected cases. The stings occur mainly in rural areas (57.7%). Young people with theage group of 15-24 years old were the most victims of stings.The mortality and recovery rates of cases who had received anti venom less than 6 h of stings were calculated as 0.01% and 99.9% respectively.Conclusion: The high incidence of scorpion stings in Iran especially in Khuzestan suggests the necessity of preventive programmes for decreasing the incidence. Such programmes could start by community educating in the high prevalent areas. In addition prompt and local treatment is particularly important for infants and pre-school children. Source

Oshaghi M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rassi Y.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hazratian T.,University of Tabriz | Fallah E.,University of Tabriz | Rafizadeh S.,Reference Health Laboratories Research Center
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases

Background & objectives: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum, which is transmitted to humans by bites of phlebotomine sandflies and is one of the most important public health problems in Iran. To detect and identify the Leishmania parasites and their corresponding vector(s), an investigation was carried out in Azarshahr County, a new and important focus of the disease in East Azerbaijan province in northwestern Iran during late April to late October 2010. Methods: Sandflies were sampled using sticky papers (A4 white paper soaked in castor oil) from inside and outside of the houses and animal shelters, close to the vegetation and crevices. The head and three last abdomen segments of the specimens were removed and mounted in Puri's medium for species identification. The rest of body was subjected to molecular methods for detection of leishmanial parasites. Results: Among 400 female sandflies tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA, and CPB genes of the parasite followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), only 2 out of 8 Phlebotomus tobbi were positive to L. infantum parasites. Conclusion: The results indicated that, P. tobbi was the only species found infected by L.infantum and the principal vector of the disease agent to human. Source

Aghaei A.A.,Kerman Medical University | Rassi Y.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sharifi I.,Kerman Medical University | Vatandoost H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Objective: To identify the Leishmania species in infected sand flies by Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis. Methods: Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish Leishmania species in sand flies specimens. Results: Three out of 115 females of Phlebotomus sergenti (P. sergenti) (2.6%) were positive to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica). Conclusions: This is the first report on P. sergenti as the main and proven vector of anthroponitic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dehbakri County using Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific for diagnosing of parasites in infected Sand flies and ideal for large scale genotyping projects. © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Source

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