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San Fedele Superiore, Italy

Pesciaroli M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Pesciaroli M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alvarez J.,University of Minnesota | Boniotti M.B.,National Reference Center for Bovine Tuberculosis | And 6 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science

M.bovis and M.caprae, members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), are the major causative agents of tuberculosis in domestic animals. Notably, M.bovis exhibits a wide host range; the infection has been reported in many domesticated animals and free or captive wildlife. Despite most of them acting as spill-over hosts in particular epidemiological scenarios, some domesticated species as pigs, camelids and goats may display high rates of infection and possibly play a role in the inter-species transmission of the disease. The aim of this review is to make an updated overview of the susceptibility and the role in the transmission of the disease of the most common domesticated animals species such as small ruminants, pigs, horses, camelids, dogs and cats. An overview of the diagnostic approaches to detect the infection in each of the species included in the review is also presented. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ruggeri J.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dellEmilia Romagna | Pesciaroli M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Pesciaroli M.,Reference Center for Veterinary Public Health | Pesciaroli M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 9 more authors.

A major cause of salmonellosis in humans is the contamination of pork products. Infection in pigs can be controlled using bio-security programs, but they are not sufficient in countries where a high level of infection is recorded. In this context, the use of vaccines can represent a valid supplementary method of control. Recently, we have demonstrated that an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium δznuABC) is protective against systemic and enteric salmonellosis in mouse and pig infection models, candidating this strain as an oral attenuated vaccine. In this study, we compared the efficacy of this attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain when administered orally or parenterally. Furthermore, in order to reproduce a pseudo-natural infection model, vaccinated pigs were allocated in the same pen with animals shedding virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. Animals were monitored weekly after vaccination and contact with infected piglets. Diarrhea and ataxia were recorded and Salmonella shedding was tested individually through bacterial culture. After four weeks of cohousing, piglets were euthanized, after which lymph nodes reactivity and gross lesions of the gut sections were scored at necropsy. Organs were submitted to microbiological and histological analyses. The data reported herein show that parenterally vaccinated animals do not shed the attenuated strain, and at the same time the absence of symptoms and decrease in virulent strain shedding in feces from day 6 after challenge demonstrated protection against infection induced by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. In conclusion, our findings suggest that this is an alternative route of Salmonella Typhimurium δznuABC administration, without ignoring the advantages associated with oral vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ruggeri J.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dellEmilia Romagna | Pesciaroli M.,Reference Center for Veterinary Public Health | Pesciaroli M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Foresti F.,DVM | And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology

The monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, namely Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i-, has been increasingly responsible for foodborne human cases of disease and is most frequently detected in pork, since the variant is widely spread in pig farms.The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an autologous vaccine in decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i-, in pigs. The trial was performed in a multisite pig production system of Northern Italy. The autogenous vaccine was prepared from the Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i- strain isolated from the clinical case occurring in the Farm. Different immunization protocols were applied, ranging from interventions only in sows or piglets, or both. Microbiological analysis was performed to assess faecal shedding in sows and their offspring from birth till end of the production cycle and organ colonization of slaughtered pigs. Body weight of pigs was recorded at different time-points. Humoral immune response was evaluated in serum samples of sows and piglets.S. Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i- determines reduction of animal growth and farm production, furthermore, contamination of carcasses at the slaughterhouse. The load of bacteria entering into the food processing chain is differently influenced by the regimen of administration of inactivated vaccine. In particular, a combined vaccination of sows and their offspring was able to improve the weight gain of growing pigs, to limit Salmonella colonization of organs and to reduce the number of carrier pigs, and hence lowering the risk of introducing Salmonella organisms in the slaughter process. © 2015. Source

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