Reference Center for Rare Adrenal Diseases

Paris, France

Reference Center for Rare Adrenal Diseases

Paris, France

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Cazabat L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Cazabat L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Cazabat L.,University of Paris Descartes | Ragazzon B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 28 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2014

Carney complex (CNC) is a hereditary disease associating cardiac myxoma, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity. CNC is caused by inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene encoding PKA type I alpha regulatory subunit (RIα). Although PKA activity is enhanced in CNC, the mechanisms linking PKA dysregulation to endocrine tumorigenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensors for cAMP and PKA activity to define the role of RIα in the spatiotemporal organization of the cAMP/PKA pathway. RIα knockdown in HEK293 cells increased basal as well as forskolin or prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-stimulated total cellular PKA activity as reported by western blots of endogenous PKA targets and the FRET-based global PKA activity reporter, AKAR3. Using variants of AKAR3 targeted to subcellular compartments, we identified similar increases in the response to PGE1 in the cytoplasm and at the outer mitochondrial membrane. In contrast, at the plasma membrane, the response to PGE1 was decreased along with an increase in basal FRET ratio. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis of basal and PGE1-induced phosphorylation of membrane-associated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Similar differences were observed between the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in human adrenal cells carrying a RIα inactivating mutation. RIα inactivation also increased cAMP in the cytoplasm, at the outer mitochondrial membrane and at the plasma membrane, as reported by targeted versions of the cAMP indicator Epac1-camps. These results show that RIα inactivation leads to multiple, compartment-specific alterations of the cAMP/PKA pathway revealing new aspects of signaling dysregulation in tumorigenesis. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Boscaro M.,Marche Polytechnic University | Bertherat J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bertherat J.,Reference Center for Rare Adrenal Diseases | Bertherat J.,University of Paris Descartes | And 11 more authors.
Pituitary | Year: 2014

In a previous 15-day, Phase II study of patients with de novo or persistent/recurrent Cushing's disease (core study), treatment with pasireotide 600 μg sc bid reduced urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels in 76 % of patients and normalized UFC in 17 %. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended treatment with pasireotide. This was a planned, open-ended, single-arm, multicenter extension study (primary endpoint: 6 months). Patients aged ≥18 years with Cushing's disease who completed the core study could enter the extension if they achieved UFC normalization at core study end and/or obtained significant clinical benefit. Of the 38 patients who completed the core study, 19 entered the extension and 18 were included in the efficacy analyses (three responders, 11 reducers, four non-reducers in the core study). At data cut-off, median treatment duration in the extension was 9.7 months (range: 2 months to 4.8 years). At extension month 6, 56 % of the 18 patients had lower UFC than at core baseline and 22 % had normalized UFC. Of the four patients who remained on study drug at month 24, one had normalized UFC. Reductions in serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, body weight and diastolic blood pressure were observed. The most common adverse events were mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal disorders and hyperglycemia. Pasireotide offers a tumor-directed medical therapy that may be effective for the extended treatment of some patients with Cushing's disease. © 2013 The Author(s).


Schopohl J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Gu F.,Peking Union Medical College | Rubens R.,Ghent University | Van Gaal L.,University of Antwerp | And 9 more authors.
Pituitary | Year: 2015

Purpose: Report the efficacy and safety of pasireotide sc in patients with Cushing’s disease during an open-ended, open-label extension to a randomized, double-blind, 12-month, Phase III study. Methods: 162 patients entered the core study. 58 patients who had mean UFC ≤ ULN at month 12 or were benefiting clinically from pasireotide entered the extension. Patients received the same dose of pasireotide as at the end of the core study (300–1,200 μg bid). Dose titration was permitted according to efficacy or drug-related adverse events. Results: 40 patients completed 24 months’ treatment. Of the patients who entered the extension, 50.0 % (29/58) and 34.5 % (20/58) had controlled UFC (UFC ≤ ULN) at months 12 and 24, respectively. The mean percentage decrease in UFC was 57.3 % (95 % CI 40.7–73.9; n = 52) and 62.1 % (50.8–73.5; n = 33) after 12 and 24 months’ treatment, respectively. Improvements in clinical signs of Cushing’s disease were sustained up to month 24. The most frequent drug-related adverse events in patients who received ≥1 dose of pasireotide (n = 162) from core baseline until the 24-month cut-off were diarrhea (55.6 %), nausea (48.1 %), hyperglycemia (38.9 %), and cholelithiasis (31.5 %). No new safety issues were identified during the extension. Conclusions: Reductions in mean UFC and improvements in clinical signs of Cushing’s disease were maintained over 24 months of pasireotide treatment. The safety profile of pasireotide is typical for a somatostatin analogue, except for the frequency and degree of hyperglycemia; patients should be monitored for changes in glucose homeostasis. Pasireotide represents the first approved pituitary-targeted treatment for patients with Cushing’s disease. © 2014, The Author(s).


Berthon A.,Clermont University | Berthon A.,University Blaise Pascal | Berthon A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Berthon A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 44 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2014

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the main cause of secondary hypertension, resulting from adrenal aldosteroneproducing adenomas (APA) or bilateral hyperplasia. Here, we show that constitutive activation ofWNT/β-catenin signalling is the most frequent molecular alteration found in 70% of APA. We provide evidence that decreased expression of theWNTinhibitor SFRP2may be contributing to deregulatedWNT signalling andAPAdevelopment in patients. This is supported by the demonstration that mice with genetic ablation of Sfrp2 have increased aldosterone production and ectopic differentiation of zona glomerulosa cells.We further show that b-catenin plays an essential role in the control ofbasal andAngiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion, by activatingAT1R,CYP21 and CYP11B2 transcription. This relies on both LEF/TCF-dependent activation of AT1R and CYP21 regulatory regions and indirect activation of CYP21 and CYP11B2 promoters, through increased expression of the nuclear receptors NURR1 and NUR77. Altogether, these data show that aberrantWNT/β-catenin activation is associated with APA development and suggest thatWNT pathway may be a good therapeutic target in PA. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Berthon A.,University Blaise Pascal | Berthon A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Sahut-Barnola I.,University Blaise Pascal | Sahut-Barnola I.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 20 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology. Constitutive activation of β-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients. Here, we show that constitutive activation of β-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla. Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion. These oncogenic events were accompanied by ectopic differentiation of glomerulosa at the expense of fasciculata cells, which caused primary hyperaldosteronism. Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active β-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.


Roussel H.W.,Institute National Of La Sante Et Of La Recherche Medicale Unite 1016 | Roussel H.W.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Roussel H.W.,University of Paris Descartes | Vezzosi D.,Institute National Of La Sante Et Of La Recherche Medicale Unite 1016 | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Context: The cortisol secretion of adrenocortical adenomas can be either subtle or overt. The mechanisms leading to the autonomous hypersecretion of cortisol are unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the gene expression profile associated with the autonomous and excessive cortisol secretion of adrenocortical adenomas. Patients and Methods: The transcriptome of 22 unilateral adrenocortical adenomas (5 nonsecreting, 6 subclinical cortisol producing, 11 cortisol producing) was studied and correlated with cortisol secretion. Phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) expression was measured by Western blot. Results: Unsupervised clustering identified 2 groups of adenomas with a difference in secretion level (P = .008). Cluster 1 included only cortisol-producing adenomas (8 of 11), whereas cluster 2 was an admixture of the nonsecreting, the subclinical cortisol-secreting, and 3 of the 11 cortisol-secreting adenomas (Fisher exact, P = .002). This cluster was driven by genes related to cortisol secretion and to extracellular matrix. More than 3000 genes correlated with cortisol secretion. Among the positively correlated were the steroidogenic enzymes, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, and glutathione S-transferases. Among the negatively correlated genes were genes related to transcripts translation and the transcription factor GATA-6. The PDE8B, which inactivates the protein kinase A pathway, unexpectedly showed the strongest positive correlation with cortisol secretion, confirmed by Western blot. The protein kinase A-activity to cAMP ratio was increased in adenomas with high PDE8B levels, suggesting counterregulation to limit downstream activation of the pathway. Conclusion: The transcriptome of adrenocortical adenomas reveals a major association with cortisol secretion and identifies specific groups of genes implicated in steroid secretion, suggesting that cAMP signaling alterations might be frequent in cortisol-secreting adenomas. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.


de Joussineau C.,University Blaise Pascal | de Joussineau C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sahut-Barnola I.,University Blaise Pascal | Sahut-Barnola I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 24 more authors.
Human molecular genetics | Year: 2014

Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is associated with inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A tumor suppressor gene that encodes the regulatory subunit R1α of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In human and mouse adrenocortical cells, these mutations lead to increased PKA activity, which results in increased resistance to apoptosis that contributes to the tumorigenic process. We used in vitro and in vivo models to investigate the possibility of a crosstalk between PKA and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in adrenocortical cells and its possible involvement in apoptosis resistance. Impact of PKA signaling on activation of the mTOR pathway and apoptosis was measured in a mouse model of PPNAD (AdKO mice), in human and mouse adrenocortical cell lines in response to pharmacological inhibitors and in PPNAD tissues by immunohistochemistry. AdKO mice showed increased mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway activity. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin restored sensitivity of adrenocortical cells to apoptosis in AdKO but not in wild-type mice. In both cell lines and mouse adrenals, rapid phosphorylation of mTORC1 targets including BAD proapoptotic protein was observed in response to PKA activation. Accordingly, BAD hyperphosphorylation, which inhibits its proapoptotic activity, was increased in both AdKO mouse adrenals and human PPNAD tissues. In conclusion, mTORC1 pathway is activated by PKA signaling in human and mouse adrenocortical cells, leading to increased cell survival, which is correlated with BAD hyperphosphorylation. These alterations could be causative of tumor formation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Liu-Chittenden Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Patel D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Gaskins K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Giordano T.J.,University of Michigan | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Context: Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 (RARRES2) is a small secreted protein involved in multiple cancers, including adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, discordant tumor and serum RARRES2 levels have been reported in various cancers. The etiology of this discordance is unknown and has not been studied in pair-matched tumor and serum samples. Objective: To determine tissue and serum RARRES2 levels in patients with adrenocortical neoplasm and to elucidate the prognostic implications of RARRES2 levels. Design, Settings, and Patients: Tissue and serum RARRES2 levels were analyzed. A pair-matched analysis was performed to examine tissue and serum RARRES2 from 51 patients with benign adrenocortical tumors and 18 patients with ACC. Overall survival was analyzed based on RARRES2 expression. A mouse xenograft model was used to determine the source of serum RARRES2. Results: Patients with ACC had decreased tumor RARRES2 gene expression (P < .0001) and increased serum RARRES2 levels (P < .005) as compared with patients with benign adrenocortical tumors. Higher serum RARRES2 levels were associated with improved overall survival (P = .0227). A mouse xenograft model demonstrated that higher tissue RARRES2 expression was associated with higher RARRES2 secretion in the serum and that there was an intrinsic mechanism in maintaining serum RARRES2 homeostasis. Conclusions: Serum and tissue RARRES2 expression levels are paradoxical in patients with ACC. The elevated RARRES2 in patient serum is unlikely to be secreted from tumor cells. Serum RARRES2 may be used as a novel prognostic marker for ACC.

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