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Portland, OR, United States

Reed College is a private liberal arts college located in southeast Portland in the U.S. state of Oregon. Founded in 1908, Reed is a residential college with a campus located in Portland's Eastmoreland neighborhood, featuring architecture based on the Tudor-Gothic style, and a forested canyon nature preserve at its center. Reed is known for its mandatory freshman humanities program, for its required senior-year thesis, as the only private undergraduate college with a primarily student-run nuclear reactor supporting its science programs, and for the unusually high proportion of graduates who go on to earn PhDs and other postgraduate degrees. Wikipedia.

Netusil N.R.,Reed College
Land Use Policy | Year: 2013

This study examines if open space ownership, and ownership of the land on which water resources are located, has a different effect on the sale price of nearby single-family residential properties using an OLS and spatial lag modeling approach. Estimated coefficients for the percentage of land with publicly and/or privately owned water resources in the spatial lag model are mixed with significantly negative coefficients for privately owned land with wetlands or streams and a significantly positive coefficient for publicly owned land with wetlands. These results may reflect differences in accessibility, the current quality of these resources, and beliefs about future management. The spatial lag model has fewer significant coefficients than the OLS model, but the signs of key parameters are consistent across models. The average absolute difference between coefficients in the OLS and spatial lag models is 30.2%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Renn S.C.P.,Reed College | Schumer M.E.,Princeton University
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2013

Many behaviours vary in response to the environment (biotic or abiotic) and therefore represent an interesting form of phenotypic plasticity. Behavioural plasticity, like other plastic traits, can evolve through genetic assimilation or accommodation. However, little is known about the nature of changes in gene expression plasticity that accompanies these evolutionary changes in phenotypic plasticity. We know that variation in gene expression level, a first-order phenotype, underlies much behavioural variation. Several studies have begun to document which genes show expression-level variation related to plastic changes in behaviour as well as evolved changes in behaviour. Advances in sequencing technology allow us to address these questions on a genomic scale. By characterizing changes in gene expression according to the concept of a norm of reaction one can describe the evolved patterns of gene expression that accompany the evolution of behavioural plasticity. Here, we describe how genomic approaches can help us understand changes in gene expression that accompany or underlie the evolution of behavioural plasticity. To do this, we provide a framework of classification for the evolved patterns of gene expression plasticity that could underlie genetic assimilation or accommodation of behaviour. We provide examples of genetic assimilation from the animal behaviour and animal physiology literature that have been, or can be, studied at a genomic level. We then describe the characteristics of an appropriate study system and briefly address experimental design using the available genomic tools in a comparative context. Studying the patterns of gene expression associated with genetic assimilation will elucidate processes by which behavioural plasticity has evolved. © 2013. Source

Griffiths D.J.,Reed College
American Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

This Resource Letter surveys the literature on momentum in electromagnetic fields, including the general theory, the relation between electromagnetic momentum and vector potential, "hidden" momentum, the 4/3 problem for electromagnetic mass, and the Abraham-Minkowski controversy regarding the field momentum in polarizable and magnetizable media. © 2012 American Association of Physics Teachers. Source

Bedau M.A.,Reed College
Astrobiology | Year: 2010

This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles. Source

Boisvert L.,University of Washington | Boisvert L.,Reed College | Goldberg K.I.,University of Washington
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

L imited natural resources, high energy consumption, economic considerations, and environmental concerns demand that we develop new technologies for the sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. New methods that combine the selective activation of C-H bonds of hydrocarbons with oxidation by a green oxidant such as molecular oxygen would represent huge advances toward this goal. The spectacular selectivity of transition metals in cleaving C-H bonds offers the potential for the direct use of hydrocarbons in the production of value-added organics such as alcohols. However, the use of oxygen, which is abundant, environmentally benign, and inexpensive (particularly from air), has proven challenging, and more expensive and less green oxidants are often employed in transition-metalcatalyzed reactions. Advances in the use of oxygen as an oxidant in transitionmetal-catalyzed transformations of hydrocarbons will require a better understanding of how oxygen reacts with transition metal alkyl and hydride complexes. For alkane oxidations, researchers will need to comprehend and predict how metals that have shown particularly high activity and selectivity in C-H bond activation (e.g. Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir) will react with oxygen. In this Account, we present our studies of reactions of late metal alkyls and hydrides with molecular oxygen, emphasizing the mechanistic insights that have emerged from this work. Our studies have unraveled some of the general mechanistic features of how molecular oxygen inserts into late metal hydride and alkyl bonds along with a nascent understanding of the scope and limitations of these reactions. We present examples of the formation of metal hydroperoxide species M-OOH by insertion of dioxygen into Pt(IV)-HandPd(II)-H bonds and showevidence that these reactions proceed by radical chain and hydrogen abstraction pathways, respectively. Comparisons with recent reports of insertion of oxygen into other Pd(II)-H complexes, and also into Ir(III)-H and Rh(III)-H complexes, point to potentially general mechanisms for this type of reaction. Additionally, we observed oxygen-promoted C-H and H-H reductive elimination reactions from five-coordinate Ir(III) alkyl hydride and dihydride complexes, respectively. Further, when Pd(II)Me 2 and Pt(II)Me 2 complexes were exposed to oxygen, insertion processes generated M-OOMe complexes. Mechanistic studies for these reactions are consistent with radical chain homolytic substitution pathways involving five-coordinate M(III) intermediates. Due to the remarkable ability of Pt(II) and Pd(II) to activate the C-H bonds of hydrocarbons (RH) and form M-R species, this reactivity is especially exciting for the development of partial alkane-oxidation processes that utilize molecular oxygen. Our understanding of how late transition metal alkyls and hydrides react with molecular oxygen is growing rapidly and will soon approach our knowledge of how other small molecules such as olefins and carbon monoxide react with these species. Just as advances in understanding olefin and CO insertion reactions have shaped important industrial processes, key insight into oxygen insertion should lead to significant gains in sustainable commercial selective oxidation catalysis. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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