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Estanqueiro A.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology | Ardal A.R.,Sintef | O'Dwyer C.,UCD | Flynn D.,UCD | And 9 more authors.
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2012

The amount of wind power and other timevariable non-dispatchable renewable energy sources (RES) is rapidly increasing in the world. A few power systems are already facing very high penetrations from variable renewables which can surpass the systems' consumption during no-load periods, requiring the energy excess to be curtailed, exported or stored. The limitations of electric energy storage naturally lead to the selection of the well-known form of storing potential energy in reservoirs of reversible hydropower stations, although other technologies such as heat storage are also being used successfully. This paper reviews the storage technologies that are available and may be used on a power system scale and compares their advantages and disadvantages for the integration of fast-growing renewables, such as wind power, with a special focus on the role of pumped hydro storage. © 2012 IEEE.

Lopez R.,REE | Revuelta J.,INSEAD | Cobo I.,ICAI
International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM | Year: 2013

This article presents the recent developments in the methodology for the calculation of LOLE and EDNS in the Spanish electrical systems; these solutions can be directly applied or easily adapted to fit any other system as well. Starting from an existing probabilistic methodology, a new tool was created to address not only thermal power units but to include new features such as renewable generation technologies, higher degree of interconnections, and pumped hydro storage. Several areas of improvement have been identified and addressed. A recursive algorithm to treat the mutual support among interconnected systems is developed; stochastic contribution of wind power and other RES is added or improved; pump storage hydro units are considered, thanks to an optimization of the hydro resources; conventional hydro is modelled based on the historical availability of primary resource. © 2013 IEEE.

Rapoport S.,Tractebel Engineering | Panciatici P.,French Electricity Transmission Network | Lopez J.-J.,REE | Merckx C.,Tractebel Engineering | And 4 more authors.
44th International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2012 | Year: 2012

The PEGASE project aims at grid management tools to achieve an integrated security analysis and control of the European Transmission Network (ETN). Today the paradigm of this system has changed: interconnections are reinforced for market reasons and not any more just for reserve sharing. Moreover, new interconnections are planned (Turkey) or contemplated (for instance the Mediterranean ring or the Russian system) leading to the most extended interconnected system in the world. On top of these structural changes, the following internal evolutions are impacting the operation of the ETN: • An already massive penetration of wind power and the growing installed capacity of distributed generation; • Difficulty to build new Extra High Voltage transmission lines and development of more and more special control devices such as phase shifting transformers; • New power electronic technologies are increasingly used in interfaces between the network and new energy sources (variable speed windmills, Photovoltaic generation); • Higher power exchanges between countries and the future development of electricity highways to transfer bulk power over long distances across the continent make the national grids more interdependent and increase the need for an integrated operation of the ETN. Because of these changes in the physical behavior of the system, its mode of monitoring and control must be reviewed. It is thus needed to develop new tools capable of simulating the whole ETN to support the daily operation. The four-year R&D PEGASE project ending in June 2012 addresses this challenge. It was funded by the 7th Framework Program of the European Union and implemented by a consortium composed of 21 Partners which included Transmission System Operators, expert companies and leading research centers. The heart of the PEGASE project involved developing advanced algorithms, building prototype software and demonstrating feasibility of real-time state estimation, constrained multi-objective optimization and detailed time domain simulation of a very large model representative of the ETN, taking into account its operation by multiple TSOs. Looking at the achievement of the project, the European, Russian and Turkish origin of the consortium partners allowed to cover various structural system needs but also organizational schemes from very centralized to decentralized ones. In this context, unbiased recommendations in terms of architecture and associated software application specifications were issued by the project. These paved the way for an optimally integrated security analysis and control of the ETN. Next, the scientific contribution of the PEGASE project was significant in the field of state estimation, steady state optimization, time domain simulation and modeling, for very large and interconnected power systems. In all these fields, the project went well beyond the state-of-the-art as highlighted in the bibliography. The developed prototypes constitute the elementary blocks of the common platforms to be set up by the TSOs in their operational environment allowing ultimately to operate the ETN closer to its limit and hence support the integration of large shares of Renewable Energy Sources and the internal electricity market in Europe. Finally, the soundness and efficiency of all developed solutions are demonstrated by running large scale test cases representative of the ETN. These tests will be carried out by the TSOs of the project to ensure the compliance between the TSO needs and the proposed solutions.

Carlini E.M.,TERNA S.p.A | Ferrante A.,TERNA S.p.A | Gonzalez Lopez V.,REE | Ivanov C.,Entso E Inc. | And 2 more authors.
CIGRE 2011 Bologna Symposium - The Electric Power System of the Future: Integrating Supergrids and Microgrids | Year: 2011

The goals ultimately chosen worldwide and their legislative implementation in the EU shall result in substantial changes to the energy supply systems, the primary energy source mix and especially the transmission infrastructures in a mere few decades, as shown in the ENTSO-E figure below. The integration of huge amounts of renewable electricity production up to 2050 and the creation of a pan-European supergrid, currently referred to also as pan European Electricity Highways System, have been set high on the EC agenda. They are part of the new EC's Energy Infrastructure Package for 2050, to be issued for: - enabling broad power transmission; - answering adequately to the global desire to move towards a sustainable, reliable and cost-efficient energy supply system, (which is capable of accommodating massive energy flows over continental or transcontinental distances); - fostering the establishment of a well functioning single Internal Energy Market (IEM) in Europe. With a view on global and European 2050 climate goals, the EC envisions a largely CO2-neutral energy system including high percentages of renewable energy (RES) for its upcoming 2050 energy policy roadmap. Since the RES natural resources (e.g. wind, solar and biomass) are generally far distanced from load centres and since wind and solar energy have lower capacity factors than most current power plants, more RES means more transmission capacity is necessary to cover RES integration. Therefore, a long-term vision on grid infrastructure is helpful to guide current and future investments considering that transmission assets require several years to be built and feature long lifetimes,. The current European transmission system already allows reliability support and limited continental-scale trading and the 2020 pilot Ten Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP) [1] issued by ENTSO-E1already foresees some 500 projects that are cost-effective necessary additions to meet both the customers' and the European policy 2020 goals, as related to security of supply, market and RES integration. With those additional projects, the European grid will be even more meshed than today, both within and between countries. In line with the EIP communication and underlining its key role, ENTSO-E and its members will also look beyond the 3rd Energy Package scope, respectively beyond the TYNDP horizon. They are therefore pro-actively preparing a comprehensive study roadmap towards a "Modular Development Plan on pan-European Electricity Highways System 2050" (MoDPEHS), taking into account the relevant technical/technological, financial/economical and political/socio-political issues as well as focusing on the whole supply chain. This study work on MoDPEHS shall be realized with broad involvement and direct participation of external stakeholders and could describe a starting basis for a dedicated EC Master Plan on Electricity Highways implementation.


Ree and Lee | Date: 2000-03-03

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