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Sneek, Netherlands

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-01-2014 | Award Amount: 4.13M | Year: 2015

The concept is based on the generation of electricity from salinity gradient using Reverse Electrodialysis with artificial saline solutions operating in a closed-loop. The original salinity gradient is regenerated by a separation step that uses heat at 40 - 100 C. The regenerated solutions can be stored at very low costs and the stack can react within seconds, providing flexibility to the power system. It is a quiet technology operating under normal pressures and temperatures imposing no risks. The industrial partners ensures the MRL will be kept aligned with the advances in TRL. The overall objective is to prove this revolutionary concept, develop the necessary materials, components and know-how for bringing it to the level of a lab prototype generating electricity from low-grade heat at higher efficiencies and lower costs than ever achieved to date. Specific objectives: Select the most suitable technologies for the regeneration process and the combinations of salts and solvents that can maximise the system performance. Create new knowledge for developing: membranes for the selected solutions; membrane manufacturing concepts that can be scaled-up for high volume and low-cost production; efficient stacks suitable for this application; energy efficient regeneration processes. Implement and validate a process simulation tool to analyse the performance under different configurations and operating conditions. Evaluate and improve the performance of the overall system through tests on a lab-prototype, identifying potential up-scaling and operational issues (System efficiencies reaching 15% and power densities of 25 W/m2 of cell pair). Define a development roadmap, taking into account environmental, social and regulatory issues, leading to levelised cost of electricity below 0.03 Euro/kWh by 2025 to 2030. Involve target group representatives to the Advisory Board and communicate the key results in order to initiate a dialogue and facilitate the engagement of key actors.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.10.2-1 | Award Amount: 3.18M | Year: 2010

Electricity can be generated by mixing salt water and fresh water in a controlled way. Salt water can be sea water and fresh water can be river water, so this technology can be used wherever a river flows into the sea. CAPMIX stands for capacitive mixing and is a new way of harvesting this potential power. The principal advantage of this technology is that the electricity generation is directly linked to the mixing process, no additional intermediate conversions are necessary. There is thus no need for expensive complex converters like turbines or electrodes. This makes that this type of holds the greatest promise of becoming an economical and environmental benign renewable energy plant.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.10.2-1 | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2010

The project is focusing on the salinity gradient power reverse electrodialysis (SGP-RE) process. It has been shown in scientific papers that the performance of the process can be increased by an order of magnitude when brine and sea or brackish water are used for the creation of the salinity gradient rather than the current approach of seawater with fresh water. The overall potential is very high and the REAPower project aims to enable the SGP-RE technology to play an important role in the energy mix of the next decades, contributing to the major objectives of energy policy for sustainability, security of supply and competitiveness. The following specific scientific and technological objectives are expected to be achieved within the life-time of the project: (i) Create materials and components tailored to the requirements of the process, including the membranes, spacers, electrodes and electrolyte. (ii) Optimise the design of the SGP-RE cell pairs and stack using a computer modelling tool developed for that purpose (iii) Verify the model, and assess the developed materials, components and design through tests on laboratory stacks. (iv) Evaluate and improve the performance of the overall system through tests on a prototype fed with real brine from a salt pond (v) Evaluate the results, analyse the economics, assess the environmental impacts and define the next necessary R&D activities for further development of the technology The REAPower project explores a new path that has been so far only theoretically analysed. A highly innovative novel technology will be applied that overcomes the limitations of the current approach. The multidisciplinary consortium brings together key players from the industry and the academic world to work across traditional boundaries. The development of the new materials and components will contribute to the establishment of a strong scientific and technical base for European science and technology in this emerging area of energy research.

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