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Pennicard D.,Spectrum | Pennicard D.,German Electron Synchrotron | Pirard B.,Mirion Technologies | Tolbanov O.,Tomsk State University | Iniewski K.,Redlen Technologies
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2017

Semiconductor X-ray detectors are widely used in experiments at synchrotron facilities. The performance of these detectors depends heavily on the semiconductor material properties. Improvements in crystal growth and device processing are key to developing high-Z (high atomic number) semiconductors for hard X-ray detection. Germanium is the most mature high-Z semiconductor and is widely used in X-ray detectors, but it has the drawback of needing to be cooled during operation, often to cryogenic temperatures. Compound semiconductors with wide bandgaps can be used at room temperature, but crystal defects can degrade their performance. Gallium arsenide currently shows poorer energy resolution, but its comparative robustness and stability over time make it a strong option for imaging detectors. Cadmium telluride and cadmium zinc telluride both provide higher detection efficiencies at extreme X-ray energies as well as good energy resolution; the main challenge with these materials is maintaining consistent behavior under a high X-ray flux. © 2017 Materials Research Society.


Iniewski K.,Redlen Technologies
Journal of Instrumentation | Year: 2016

Recent advances in Traveling Heater Method (THM) growth and device fabrication that require additional processing steps have enabled to dramatically improve hole transport properties and reduce polarization effects in Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) material. As a result high flux operation of CZT sensors at rates in excess of 200 Mcps/mm2 is now possible and has enabled multiple medical imaging companies to start building prototype Computed Tomography (CT) scanners. CZT sensors are also finding new commercial applications in non-destructive testing (NDT) and baggage scanning. In order to prepare for high volume commercial production we are moving from individual tile processing to whole wafer processing using silicon methodologies, such as waxless processing, cassette based/touchless wafer handling. We have been developing parametric level screening at the wafer stage to ensure high wafer quality before detector fabrication in order to maximize production yields. These process improvements enable us, and other CZT manufacturers who pursue similar developments, to provide high volume production for photon counting applications in an economically feasible manner. CZT sensors are capable of delivering both high count rates and high-resolution spectroscopic performance, although it is challenging to achieve both of these attributes simultaneously. The paper discusses material challenges, detector design trade-offs and ASIC architectures required to build cost-effective CZT based detection systems. Photon counting ASICs are essential part of the integrated module platforms as charge-sensitive electronics needs to deal with charge-sharing and pile-up effects. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.


This report studies Semiconductor Detector in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering  Micron Semiconductor  Rigaku  Redlen Technologies  Centronic  Allegro MicroSystems LLC  AOS  Cree  Diodes  Bruker Daltonics  New Cosmos  SENSITRON  General Monitors  Henan Hanwei Electronics Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Semiconductor Detector in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like  North America  Europe  China  Japan  Korea  Taiwan Split by product type, with production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into  Surface Barrier Detector  Lithium Drifting Detector  High Purity Germanium Detector Split by application, this report focuses on consumption, market share and growth rate of Semiconductor Detector in each application, can be divided into  Nuclear Power Plant  Astrophysical  Safety Inspection  Other 1 Semiconductor Detector Market Overview  1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Semiconductor Detector  1.2 Semiconductor Detector Segment by Type  1.2.1 Global Production Market Share of Semiconductor Detector by Type in 2015  1.2.2 Surface Barrier Detector  1.2.3 Lithium Drifting Detector  1.2.4 High Purity Germanium Detector  1.3 Semiconductor Detector Segment by Application  1.3.1 Semiconductor Detector Consumption Market Share by Application in 2015  1.3.2 Nuclear Power Plant  1.3.3 Astrophysical  1.3.4 Safety Inspection  1.3.5 Other  1.4 Semiconductor Detector Market by Region  1.4.1 North America Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.2 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.3 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.5 Korea Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.6 Taiwan Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Semiconductor Detector (2011-2021) 2 Global Semiconductor Detector Market Competition by Manufacturers  2.1 Global Semiconductor Detector Production and Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.2 Global Semiconductor Detector Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.3 Global Semiconductor Detector Average Price by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)  2.4 Manufacturers Semiconductor Detector Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type  2.5 Semiconductor Detector Market Competitive Situation and Trends  2.5.1 Semiconductor Detector Market Concentration Rate  2.5.2 Semiconductor Detector Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers  2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion 3 Global Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2011-2016)  3.1 Global Semiconductor Detector Production by Region (2011-2016)  3.2 Global Semiconductor Detector Production Market Share by Region (2011-2016)  3.3 Global Semiconductor Detector Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2011-2016)  3.4 Global Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.5 North America Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.6 Europe Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.7 China Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.8 Japan Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.9 Korea Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)  3.10 Taiwan Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 4 Global Semiconductor Detector Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.1 Global Semiconductor Detector Consumption by Regions (2011-2016)  4.2 North America Semiconductor Detector Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.3 Europe Semiconductor Detector Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.4 China Semiconductor Detector Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.5 Japan Semiconductor Detector Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.6 Korea Semiconductor Detector Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)  4.7 Taiwan Semiconductor Detector Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016) 7 Global Semiconductor Detector Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis  7.1 Micron Semiconductor  7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.1.2 Semiconductor Detector Product Type, Application and Specification  7.1.2.1 Type I  7.1.2.2 Type II  7.1.3 Micron Semiconductor Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.2 Rigaku  7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.2.2 Semiconductor Detector Product Type, Application and Specification  7.2.2.1 Type I  7.2.2.2 Type II  7.2.3 Rigaku Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.3 Redlen Technologies  7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.3.2 Semiconductor Detector Product Type, Application and Specification  7.3.2.1 Type I  7.3.2.2 Type II  7.3.3 Redlen Technologies Semiconductor Detector Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016)  7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview  7.4 Centronic  7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors  7.4.2 Semiconductor Detector Product Type, Application and Specification  7.4.2.1 Type I  7.4.2.2 Type II


Awadalla S.A.,Taibah University | Al-Grafi M.,Taibah University | Iniewski K.,Redlen Technologies
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2014

The focus of this paper is to investigate, experimentally and theoretical, the optimum operating bias, in cadmium zinc telluride Cd 0.9Zn 0.1Te (CZT) crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THM), required to achieve maximum energy resolution. It was found that 5 mm thick detectors that have low electron trapping, (μτ)e≥1×10 -2 cm2/V, operates efficiently at relatively low applied bias, 200 V; while detectors with high electron trapping, (μτ)e≤ 5 × 10-3 cm2/V, required relative high voltage: as high as 1000 V for 5 mm thick detectors. Similarly 10 mm thick detectors can be operated at as low as 500 V. Moreover, both charge collection efficiency (CCE) and energy resolution(ER) were found to follow the same trend. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


MacKenzie J.,Redlen Technologies | Kumar F.J.,Redlen Technologies | Chen H.,Redlen Technologies
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2013

The focus of this work is to evaluate the suitability and substrate potential of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te and Cd0.96Zn 0.04Te crystals grown by the traveling heater method (THM). THM-grown Cd0.9Zn0.1Te crystals used for gamma spectroscopy have shown very good spectral performance owing partly to the very low concentration of Te inclusions and precipitates. Inspection in the infrared (IR) of annealed THM-grown CdZnTe wafers reveals no inclusions >3 μm, Fourier-transform infrared measurements show IR transmission values in excess of 60%. Wafer etch pit density values are typically less than 4 × 10-4 pits/cm2, double-crystal x-ray rocking-curve measurements show full-width at half-maximum values approaching 40 arcsec. 〈211 wafers have been produced with off orientation within 0.3. (111)-Oriented, seeded THM growth runs have the ability to provide 10 60 mm × 60 mm × 2 mm wafers from a 75-mm-diameter boule or 20 90 mm × 90 mm × 2 mm wafers from a 100-mm-diameter boule. © 2013 TMS.


Patent
Redlen Technologies | Date: 2016-02-03

A method of fabricating a solid state radiation detector method includes mechanically lapping and polishing the first and the second surfaces of a semiconductor wafer using a plurality of lapping and polishing steps. The method also includes growing passivation oxide layers by use of oxygen plasma on the top of the polished first and second surfaces in order to passivate the semiconductor wafer. Anode contacts are deposited and patterned on top of the first passivation oxide layer, which is on top of the first surface. Cathode contacts, which are either monolithic or patterned, are deposited on top of the second passivation oxide layer, which is on the second surface. Aluminum nitride encapsulation layer can be deposited over the anode contacts and patterned to encapsulate the first passivation oxide layer, while physically exposing a center portion of each anode contact to electrically connect the anode contacts.


Iniewski K.,Redlen Technologies
Journal of Instrumentation | Year: 2014

Over the last two decades, the II-VI semiconductors CdTe and CdZnTe (CZT) has emerged as the material of choice for room temperature detection of hard X-rays and soft γ-rays. The techniques of growing the crystals, the design of the detectors, and the electronics used for reading out the detectors have been considerably improved over the last few years. CdTe/CZT materials find now applications in astrophysics, medical imaging and security applications. The paper discusses recent progress in CZT detector technology and outlines possible new application opportunities. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.


A radiation detector includes a semiconductor substrate having opposing front and rear surfaces, a cathode electrode located on the front surface of the semiconductor substrate configured so as to receive radiation, and a plurality of anode electrodes formed on the rear surface of said semiconductor substrate. A work function of the cathode electrode material contacting the front surface of the semiconductor substrate is lower than a work function of the anode electrode material contacting the rear surface of the semiconductor substrate.


A radiation detector includes a semiconductor substrate which contains front and rear major surfaces and at least one side surface, a guard ring and a plurality of anode electrode pixels located over the rear surface of the semiconductor substrate, where each anode electrode pixel is formed between adjacent pixel separation regions, a side insulating layer formed on the at least one side surface of the semiconductor substrate, a cathode electrode located over the front major surface of the semiconductor substrate, and an electrically conductive cathode extension formed over at least a portion of side insulating layer, where the cathode extension contacts an edge of the cathode electrode. Further embodiments include various methods of making such semiconductor radiation detector.


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