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Garcia-Jerez A.,University of Alcala | Garcia-Jerez A.,RedInRen Institute Salud Carlos III | Luengo A.,University of Alcala | Luengo A.,RedInRen Institute Salud Carlos III | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2015

Key points: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases than the general population. Their vascular endothelium is dysfunctional, among other things, because it is permanently exposed to uraemic toxins, several of which have poor clearance by conventional dialysis. Recent studies have demonstrated the important role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and in this study we investigate the involvement of ILK in the mechanism underlying vascular endothelial damage that occurs in uraemia. For the first time, we demonstrate the implication of ILK in the protection against endothelial cell damage (inhibition of proliferation, toxicity, oxidative stress and programed cell death) induced by uraemic serum from chronic kidney disease patients and uraemic toxins. This molecular mechanism may have clinical relevance because it highlights the importance of maintaining high levels of ILK activity to help preserve endothelial integrity, at least in early stages of chronic kidney disease. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Their vascular endothelium is dysfunctional, among other things, because it is permanently exposed to uraemic toxins, several of which, mostly protein-bound compounds such as indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate, having poor clearance by conventional dialysis, induce endothelial toxicity. However, the molecular mechanism by which uraemic toxins regulate early stages of endothelial dysfunction remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated the important role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. In this study, we investigate the involvement of ILK in the mechanism underlying vascular endothelial damage that occurs in uraemia. First, we show that incubation of EA.hy926 cells with human uraemic serum from CKD patients upregulates ILK activity. This ILK activation also occurs when the cells are exposed to IS (25-100 μg ml-1), p-cresol (10-100 μg ml-1) or both combined, compared to human serum control. Next, we observed that high doses of both toxins together induce a slight decrease in cell proliferation and increase apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production. Interestingly, these toxic effects displayed a strong increase when the ILK protein is knocked down by small interfering RNA, even at low doses of uraemic toxins. Abrogation of AKT has demonstrated the ILK/AKT signalling pathway involved in these processes. This study has demonstrated the implication of ILK in the protection against endothelial cell damage induced by uraemic toxins, a molecular mechanism that could play a protective role in the early stages of endothelial dysfunction observed in uraemic patients. © 2014 The Physiological Society. Source


Del Nogal M.,University of Alcala | Del Nogal M.,RedInRen Institute Salud Carlos III | Luengo A.,University of Alcala | Luengo A.,RedInRen Institute Salud Carlos III | And 11 more authors.
Apoptosis | Year: 2012

Renal fibrosis is the final outcome of many clinical conditions that lead to chronic renal failure, characterized by a progressive substitution of cellular elements by extracellularmatrix proteins, in particular collagen type I. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms responsible for human mesangial cell survival, conditioned by changes in extracellularmatrix composition. Our results indicate that collagen I induces apoptosis in cells but only after inactivation of the pro-survival factor NFκB by either the super-repressor IκBα or the PDTC inhibitor. Collagen I activates a death pathway, through ILK/GSK-3β-dependent Bim expression. Moreover, collagen I significantly increases NFκB-dependent transcription, IκBα degradation and p65/NFκB translocation to the nucleus; it activates β1 integrin and this is accompanied by increased activity of ILK which leads to AKT activation. Knockdown of ILK or AKT with small interfering RNA suppresses the increase in NFκB activity. NFκB mediates cell survival through the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Our data suggest that human mesangial cells exposed to abnormal collagen I are protected against apoptosis by a complex mechanism involving integrin β1/ILK/AKT-dependent NFκB activation with consequent Bcl-xL overexpression, that opposes a simultaneously activated ILK/GSK-3β-dependent Bim expression and this dual mechanism may play a role in the progression of glomerular dysfunction. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012. Source


Gonzalez-Ramos M.,University of Alcala | Gonzalez-Ramos M.,RedInRen Institute Salud Carlos III | De Frutos S.,University of Alcala | De Frutos S.,RedInRen Institute Salud Carlos III | And 15 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Transforming growth factor type-β1 (TGF-β1) has been recognized as a central mediator in many pathological events related to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulation, where their locally increased expression has been implicated in the fibrosis process of numerous organs, including glomerular fibrosis in the kidney. We and others have reported the TGF-β1 synthesis regulation by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moreover we also described the implication of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the AP-1-dependent TGF-β1 up-regulation. Thus, we propose here that hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2)-dependent TGF-β1 regulation may be mediated by ILK activation. First we confirmed the increase in TGF-β1 expression in human mesangial cells (HMC) after treatment with H2O2 or with an alternative H2O2-generating system such as the glucose-oxidase enzyme (GOX). By using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and ELISA techniques, we demonstrate that extracellular H2O2 up-regulates TGF-β1 transcription, as well as increases TGF-β1 promoter activity. Furthermore, catalase-decreased intracellular H 2O2 abolished TGF-β1 up-regulation. The use of pharmacological inhibitors as well as knockdown of ILK with small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated the implication of a PI3K/ILK/AKT/ERK MAPK signaling pathway axis in the H2O2-induced TGF-β1 overexpression. Finally, we explored the physiological relevance of these findings by treating HMC with angiotensin II, a known stimuli of H 2O2 synthesis. Our results confirm the relevance of previous findings after a more physiological stimulus. In summary, our results provide evidence that ILK activity changes may act as a mechanism in response to different stimuli such as H2O2 in the induced TGF-β1 up-regulation in pathological or even physiological conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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