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Husi H.,University of Glasgow | Sanchez-Nino M.D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IDIPAZ | Delles C.,University of Glasgow | Mullen W.,University of Glasgow | And 5 more authors.
BMC Systems Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent condition in hospitalised patients undergoing major surgery or the critically ill and is associated with increased mortality. Based on the volume of the published literature addressing this condition, reporting both supporting as well as conflicting molecular evidence, it is apparent that a comprehensive analysis strategy is required to understand and fully delineate molecular events and pathways which can be used to describe disease induction and progression as well as lead to a more targeted approach in intervention therapies.Results: We used a Systems Biology approach coupled with a de-novo high-resolution proteomic analysis of kidney cortex samples from a mouse model of folic acid-induced AKI (12 animals in total) and show comprehensive mapping of signalling cascades, gene activation events and metabolite interference by mapping high-resolution proteomic datasets onto a de-novo hypothesis-free dataspace. The findings support the involvement of the glutamatergic signalling system in AKI, induced by over-activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor leading to apoptosis and necrosis by Ca2+-influx, calpain and caspase activation, and co-occurring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to DNA fragmentation and NAD-rundown. The specific over-activation of the NMDA receptor may be triggered by the p53-induced protein kinase Dapk1, which is a known non-reversible cell death inducer in a neurological context. The pathway mapping is consistent with the involvement of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS), corticoid and TNFα signalling, leading to ROS production and gene activation through NFκB, PPARγ, SMAD and HIF1α trans-activation, as well as p53 signalling cascade activation. Key elements of the RAAS-glutamatergic axis were assembled as a novel hypothetical pathway and validated by immunohistochemistry.Conclusions: This study shows to our knowledge for the first time in a molecular signal transduction pathway map how AKI is induced, progresses through specific signalling cascades that may lead to end-effects such as apoptosis and necrosis by uncoupling of the NMDA receptor. Our results can potentially pave the way for a targeted pharmacological intervention in disease progression or induction. © 2013 Husi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ars E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Bernis C.,Hospital de la Princesa | Fraga G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Martinez V.,Hospital Reina Sofia | And 5 more authors.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2014

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease and accounts for 6-10% of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT). Very few prospective, randomized trials or clinical studies address the diagnosis and management of this relatively frequent disorder. No clinical guidelines are available to date. This is a consensus statement presenting the recommendations of the Spanish Working Group on Inherited Kidney Diseases, which were agreed to following a literature search and discussions. Levels of evidence found were C and D according to the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (University of Oxford). The recommendations relate to, among other topics, the use of imaging and genetic diagnosis, management of hypertension, pain, cyst infections and bleeding, extra-renal involvement including polycystic liver disease and cranial aneurysms, management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and RRT and management of children with ADPKD. Recommendations on specific ADPKD therapies are not provided since no drug has regulatory approval for this indication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved. Source

Nastou D.,Red Cross | Sanchez-Nino M.D.,REDINREN | Ortiz A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Drugs | Year: 2014

Phosphate excess is associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has recently been linked to accelerated aging. Oral phosphate binders are prescribed to patients with CKD to prevent absorption of dietary phosphate. Currently available binders have been associated with impaired outcomes (calcium-based binders) or are expensive (non-calcium-based binders). Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Four iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. The development of fermagate and SBR759 is currently on hold due to suboptimal and adverse effect profiles in at least some clinical trials. Ferric citrate and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are at different stages of application for regulatory approval after being found safe and efficacious in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is more readily absorbed than that from sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was launched in the USA in 2014 for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in adult dialysis patients. Ferric citrate may be more suited for chronic treatment of hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have to be limited in time because of potential for iron overload in patients not needing iron or not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. In contrast, sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplements. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Gonzalez-Parra E.,IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Gonzalez-Parra E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gonzalez-Parra E.,Instituto Reina Sofia Of Investigacion Nefrologica | Gonzalez-Casaus M.L.,Hospital Gomez Ulla | And 11 more authors.
Blood Purification | Year: 2014

Background: A positive calcium balance may contribute to vascular calcification, while a negative balance increases iPTH. We explored the impact of different dialysate calcium concentrations on bone and mineral metabolism parameters according to pre-dialysis serum calcium levels. Results: Fifty-six hemodialysis patients were dialyzed with 3.0 or 2.5 mEq/l dialysate [calcium] in a crossover study of two weeks. Bone mineral metabolites were measured prior to and following the hemodialysis session. A 3.0 mEq/l dialysate [calcium] increased more post-dialysis total calcium and ionized calcium than 2.5 mEq/l dialysate [calcium]. The mildest dialysis-induced changes in calcium and PTH were observed in patients with pre-dialysis serum calcium <8.75 mg/dl dialyzed with 2.5 mEq/l dialysate [calcium] and in patients with pre-dialysis serum calcium >9.15 mg/dl dialyzed with 3.0 mEq/l calcium dialysate. Conclusion: In conclusion, the individualization of dialysate calcium concentration according to baseline pre-dialysis serum calcium may prevent major excursions in post-dialysis serum calcium and iPTH levels. Short Summary: High calcium dialysate may increase serum calcium in hemodialysis patients, while low dialysate calcium may increase PTH. Individualization of dialysate calcium according to predialysis serum calcium levels may prevent or decrease unwanted excursions of both serum calcium and PTH. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Sanchez-Nino M.D.,IdiPAZ | Ortiz A.,REDINREN | Ortiz A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2015

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by autoantibodies that mediate tissue injury. However, the pathogenesis of SLE remains poorly understood and available therapeutic approaches are not fully satisfactory. Belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes B-cell activating factor (BAFF), was the first drug approved to treat SLE in more than 50 years. However, it is not labelled for use in severe lupus nephritis. Recently, a novel high-throughput multiplex protein microarray platform to profile circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies in SLE patients identified IgG autoantibodies against several cytokines and growth factors at higher titres in SLE patients than in controls. The presence of autoantibodies to BAFF was validated in a subset of SLE patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Low levels of anti-BAFF autoantibodies were also present in healthy controls. The association of anti-BAFF reactivity to clinical features and response to therapy was not addressed. However, preliminary data suggested an association to an interferon- responsive mRNA signature, itself associated with severity. Functional studies disclosed a neutralizing activity of autoantibodies against BAFF. These findings raise new questions regarding the role of BAFF in SLE and the functional and therapeutic significance of anti-BAFF and anti-cytokine autoantibodies. © The Author 2014. Source

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