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Ogun State, Nigeria

Technological advancements, including landmark innovations in vaccinology through molecular virology, and significant transformation and changes in the society have taken place since the eradication of smallpox thirty years ago. The success with eradicating smallpox gave confidence for initiating the eradication of other diseases, such as malaria and polio. However, these efforts have not been as effective, as recorded for small pox, for a variety of reasons. There is now a debate within the global health community as to whether eradication campaigns should be abandoned in favor of less costly and perhaps more effective primary health and containment or control programmes. Significant changes that have taken place in the last thirty years, since the eradication of smallpox include, among others, (i) post-colonial political changes, with varying commitment to disease eradication initiatives, especially in the parts of the world most burdened by infectious and vaccine preventable diseases, (ii) innovations leading to the development of new and highly effective vaccines, targeted to specific diseases, (iii) the transformation brought about by improvement in education and the new global access to information (cell phones, internet, etc.), leading to an unlimited access to different types of information, subject to either positive or negative use. At the onset of eradication of smallpox, global health was confined in its operation. Today, global health is at the intersection of medical and social science disciplines-including demography, economics, epidemiology, political economy and sociology. Therefore, in considering the issue of disease eradication, medical and social perspectives must be brought into play, if future eradication programmes must succeed. The paper discusses the roles of these disciplines in disease control and eradication, especially as it affects sub Saharan Africa, the melting pot and verdant pasture of infectious diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ofomaja A.E.,University of Benin | Unuabonah E.I.,Redeemers University | Oladoja N.A.,Adekunle Ajasin University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Mansonia wood sawdust is applied as a biosorbent for the removal of copper and lead ions from single and binary aqueous solution. The effect of solution pH, electrolyte, metal ion competition and temperature were examined to obtain insight of its application for industrial waste water treatment. The Langmuir isotherm provided a better fit to experimental data for lead ion sorption with a higher monolayer capacity, while copper ion sorption was best described by the Freundlich and BET isotherms. The combined effect of adsorbing one metal ion in the presence of the other metal ion reduced the adsorption capacity of either metal ion. In a binary solution, removal of lead ions in the presence of copper ions followed the Langmuir isotherm model while the removal of copper ions in presence of lead ions followed both the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Background Kolaviron (Kol-v), an important component of Garcinia kola seed has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Methods We tested the ability of Kol-v to block signalling pathways implicated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. Results When macrophages pre-treated with Kol-v (15 and 25 μM) were activated with LPS, phosphorylation of p38 and p-c-JUN but not IκBα degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65), ERK1/2, and IκBα were blocked. Furthermore, Kol-v suppressed LPS-induced increase in the expression of IL-18 gene and LPS-induced decrease in the mRNA expression of IP-10 but it had no effect on the LPS-induced decrease in the gene expression levels of IL-1α, IL-33, IL-1β, and IFNβ1-1. When macrophages pre-treated with Kol-v (50 and 100 μM) were activated with LPS, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, IκBα, and NFκB (p65) but not that of CREB was blocked by Kol-v. The protective effect of Kol-v on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family member JNK was only observed at 100 μM. At all concentrations of Kol-v (0-100 μM) tested in this study, there was no effect of Kol-v on LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α but a concentration dependent inhibition of Kol-v on IL-6 secretion was observed. Conclusion Kol-v interferes with LPS signalling by reducing the activation of several inflammatory transcription factors and that its inhibitory action on IL-6 secretion correlates with inhibition of ERK1/2, p38, Akt, p-c-JUN and JNK signalling pathways. General significance The anti-inflammatory potential of Kol-v via inhibition of IL-6 secretion in RAW macrophage was established in this study. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Sickle Cell Disorder (SCD) is a congenital hemoglobinopathy. There is little in literature regarding the psychological variables affecting individuals living with SCD and all of the significant people around them. There are also limited numbers of trained clinical psychologists and genetic counselors to cater for the psychotherapeutic needs of individuals living with SCD. Even among those who have been trained, only a few might have fully grasped the complexities of the disease pathology. Early understanding of its pathological nature, sources, types, complications, pathophysiological basis, and clinical severity of symptoms among clinical psychologists, genetic counselors and psychotherapists, as well as general medical practitioners, could guide them in providing holistic care for dealing with and reducing pain among individuals living with SCD. It could allow risk-based counseling for families and individuals. It could also justify the early use of disease-modifying or curative interventions, such as hydroxyurea (HU), chronic transfusions (CTs), or stem-cell transplantation (SCT) by general medical practi- tioners. Hence, the need for this paper on the pathophysiology of SCD. © O.O. Ilesanmi. Source

Omotola J.S.,Redeemers University
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism | Year: 2010

The contest for the 'soul' of oil and its revenues in Nigeria have thrown up several actors representing diverse interests, most notably the stale, oil multinationals and oil-hearing communities. This paper is primarily concerned with what it called the new contentious site of oil and environmental polities in the Niger Delta. The contention revolves mainly around the interpretations ascribed to the current but unprecedented wave of violence in the region by the contending forces in oil and environmental politics. In the reading of militias' activities, there is a simultaneous convergence and divergence between the state and the oil majors. Both refuse to attribute rising violence to liberation struggles, as claimed by the militants. They, however, differ over the best tactical approach to the problem. The oil majors seem to prefer a more violent approach to taming the monster, which violence in the Niger Delta has become. This is in sharp contradiction to the states' preference for a relatively less violent approach. This 'new' disposition of the state makes it all the more interesting, given the fact that the Nigerian state is notoriously reputed for its excesses in the Niger Delta over dissent. Overall, rising violence in the Niger Delta represents the continuation of the resource struggle by another means. Notable criminal tendencies became inevitable due to the insensitivity of the government and in order to sustain the struggle. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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