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The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations. The movement's parts are: The International Committee of the Red Cross is a private humanitarian institution founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, by Henry Dunant and Gustave Moynier. Its 25-member committee has a unique authority under international humanitarian law to protect the life and dignity of the victims of international and internal armed conflicts. The ICRC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on three occasions .The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies was founded in 1919 and today it coordinates activities between the 188 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies within the Movement. On an international level, the Federation leads and organizes, in close cooperation with the National Societies, relief assistance missions responding to large-scale emergencies. The International Federation Secretariat is based in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1963, the Federation was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with the ICRC. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies exist in nearly every country in the world. Currently 188 National Societies are recognized by the ICRC and admitted as full members of the Federation. Each entity works in its home country according to the principles of international humanitarian law and the statutes of the international Movement. Depending on their specific circumstances and capacities, National Societies can take on additional humanitarian tasks that are not directly defined by international humanitarian law or the mandates of the international Movement. In many countries, they are tightly linked to the respective national health care system by providing emergency medical services.↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ 4.0 4.1 Wikipedia.


Niggemann B.,Red Cross
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Oral food challenges still remain the gold standard in the diagnosis of food related symptoms and are performed to obtain a clear 'yes or no' response. However, this is often difficult to achieve, and so proposals may be appropriate for criteria on when to stop oral food challenges. In daily practice it makes sense to challenge until clear objective symptoms occur without harming the patient. Clinical symptoms should be objective and/or: (a) severe or (b) reproducible or (c) persisting. A sensitive parameter for a beginning clinical reaction is a general change of mood. The sooner symptoms appear, the more likely they are to represent a 'true' positive reaction and the more organ systems are involved the easier it is to assess an oral food challenge as positive. In the case of subjective symptoms, the number of placebo doses should be increased. In unclear situations, the observation time until the next dose should be prolonged or the same dose repeated. Transient objective clinical symptoms usually end up in a positive challenge result. There are a number of causes for false positive and false negative challenge results, which should be considered. The aim of all oral challenge testing should be to hold the balance between two conflicting aspects: on the one hand the need to achieve clear and justified results from oral food challenges in order to avoid unnecessary diets, and on the other hand to protect patients from any harm caused by high doses of a potentially dangerous food. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Suzuki K.,Red Cross
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

This is a review regarding the current therapeutic strategies in the management of multiple myeloma. Due to the introduction of several new effective therapeutic agents, multiple myeloma is one of the most active and changing fields in clinical oncology. Multiple myeloma is caused by the expansion of monoclonal plasma cells and secretion of M-protein (immunoglobulins, Bence Jones protein and free light chain). High-dose chemotherapy supported with autologous peripheral blood stem cells is an effective treatment for the disease. However, multiple myelomas are still difficult to cure and require long-term disease control. In recent years, the introduction of novel drugs (bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide) has improved treatment. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Bux J.,Red Cross
Vox Sanguinis | Year: 2011

Antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury (immune TRALI) is now recognized as the most common cause of transfusion-associated major morbidity and death in the Western world. Among the implicated leucocyte antibodies, these ones directed against the human leucocyte antigens (HLA) class II, human neutrophil alloantigens (HNA)-3a and HLA-A2 antigens are frequently associated with severe (artificial ventilation required) and fatal cases. There is accumulating evidence that preventive measures such as transfusion of plasma-rich blood components from male donors or from donors tested negative for leucocyte antibodies are effective in the reduction of severe and fatal immune TRALI. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion. Source


Garratty G.,Red Cross
Blood Reviews | Year: 2010

Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is rare; it can be mild or associated with acute severe hemolytic anemia (HA) and death. About 125 drugs have been implicated as the cause. The HA can be caused by drug-independent antibodies that are indistinguishable, in vitro and in vivo, from autoantibodies causing idiopathic warm type autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). More commonly, the antibodies are drug-dependent (i.e., will only react in vitro in the presence of the drug). The most common drugs to cause DIIHA are anti-microbials (e.g., cefotetan, ceftriaxone and piperacillin), which are associated with drug-dependent antibodies. The most common drug to cause AIHA is fludarabine. Finding out which drug is causing the problem and stopping that drug is the first approach to therapy. It is not easy to identify the drug interactions accurately in vitro; laboratories specializing in this area can be of great help. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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