Washington, DC, United States
Washington, DC, United States

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations. The movement's parts are: The International Committee of the Red Cross is a private humanitarian institution founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, by Henry Dunant and Gustave Moynier. Its 25-member committee has a unique authority under international humanitarian law to protect the life and dignity of the victims of international and internal armed conflicts. The ICRC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on three occasions .The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies was founded in 1919 and today it coordinates activities between the 188 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies within the Movement. On an international level, the Federation leads and organizes, in close cooperation with the National Societies, relief assistance missions responding to large-scale emergencies. The International Federation Secretariat is based in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1963, the Federation was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with the ICRC. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies exist in nearly every country in the world. Currently 188 National Societies are recognized by the ICRC and admitted as full members of the Federation. Each entity works in its home country according to the principles of international humanitarian law and the statutes of the international Movement. Depending on their specific circumstances and capacities, National Societies can take on additional humanitarian tasks that are not directly defined by international humanitarian law or the mandates of the international Movement. In many countries, they are tightly linked to the respective national health care system by providing emergency medical services.↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ 4.0 4.1 Wikipedia.


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Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EID | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.32M | Year: 2016

Mental health disorders afflict more than one-third of the EUs population each year with an annual economic cost to the EU of 432 billion. The COllaborative Network for Training and EXcellence in psychoTraumatology (CONTEXT) is an international, interdisciplinary European Industrial Doctorate (EID) designed to address deficiencies in psychotraumatology training and innovation. A key feature of CONTEXT is the minimum 50% secondment of each ESR to the non-academic sector. Consistent with the requirements of an EID, this component grants ESRs access to populations not otherwise accessible in standard doctoral training programmes. This design will facilitate a new cohort of researchers and practitioners who can translate research into practice, thereby mitigating the impact of psychotrauma in the EU. The goal of CONTEXT is to develop a high quality, innovative research training programme to build capacity and expertise, and foster innovative practice and social enterprise in the area of psychotraumatology. The nine beneficiaries of CONTEXT represent a diverse, interconnected, intersectoral consortium, well placed to collaboratively train and supervise the 12 ESRs. Three interconnected research work packages, each targeting a priority population in Europe (EU-based asylum seekers and refugees, WP3; emergency-service personnel and humanitarian first-responders, WP4; and victims and perpetrators of childhood- and gender-based violence, WP5), address current and emergent skill and professional deficiencies that are essential in curbing the adverse social consequences of trauma-related psychological distress within the EU. CONTEXT enjoys significant support and commitment from highly regarded, international stakeholders and influencers at the political, scientific, and professional level.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-21-2016 | Award Amount: 7.58M | Year: 2017

STRENGTHS aims to provide effective community-based health care implementation strategies to scale-up the delivery and uptake of effective mental health interventions in different country contexts. The current refugee crisis across Europe and the Middle East effects both individual refugees psychological well-being, as they face extreme stressors in their flight from their home country, but also has large effects on the healthcare systems of countries housing refugees. In reponse to this crisis, the STRENGTHS project aims to provide a framework for scaling-up the delivery and uptake of effective community-based mental health strategies to address the specific needs of refugees within and outside Europes borders. STRENGTHS will outline necessary steps needed to integrate evidence based low-intensity psychological interventions for common mental disorders into health systems in Syrias surrounding countries taking up the majority of refugees (Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan), a LMIC (Egypt) and European countries (Germany, Switzerland the Netherlands and Sweden). The consortium is a unique partnership between academics, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), international agencies and local partners with the responsibility to provide and scale-up evidence-based mental health and psychosocial support interventions for refugees. Key preparatory steps in the local political, regulatory and governance processes for uptake and scaling-up of the intervention and key contextual and system-related factors for integration will be validated for the real-life impact on the responsiveness of the system. The low-intensity interventions and training materials will be adapted and implemented in Syrian refugees within Syrias surrounding countries taking up the majority of refugees (Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan), a LMIC (Egypt) and European countries (Germany, Switzerland the Netherlands and Sweden). STRENGTHS will disseminate and promote buy-in of a validated framework for large-scale implementation of the low intensity interventions to providers of health and social services, policy makers and funding agencies.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2012.4.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.33M | Year: 2013

Complex emergencies such as earthquakes, flooding, bombings, and the recent massacre in Utya (Norway) can seriously affect entire populations and rip nations apart, with long-term psychosocial consequences impacting the most vulnerable as well as the helpers for years following the disaster. A large number of high quality European guidelines and tools for psychosocial support interventions in crisis management already exist and have been developed during the last two decades. OPSIC will build on this work by identifying gaps and assessing best practices and develop a new innovative comprehensive operational guidance system (OGS), which will serve as the operational interface between the existing guidelines and the practical intervention tools and methods. This interface is currently missing and hinders the effective operationalization of and compliance with the guidelines in practice. Based on new research and analysis of PSS guidelines, best practices and the long-term psychosocial impact of crisis, OPSIC will design and develop an web based comprehensive operational guidance system that will operate as a common shared platform and single point of reference for PSS in crisis management. The OGS will be validated through simulations tests in three countries with crisis managers, first responders, volunteers and possible victims and evaluated according to selected key performance indicators. Subsequently, the OGS will be demonstrated for a governmental end-user and a road map for implementation of the OGS into the end-user protocols will be prepared. For the development of the guidance system, OPSIC will focus on all four phases of crisis management; prevention, preparedness, response and recovery, and relate these to the following target groups; - crisis managers, intervention forces, first responders, volunteers, victims and indirectly affected community. The expected impact of the project is in accordance with the call to improve psychosocial preparedness of the


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SEC-2013.4.1-1 | Award Amount: 46.27M | Year: 2014

DRIVER starts from the experience that neither successful R&D nor strong end-user demand always lead to innovation in the Crisis Management (CM) domain. This is a problem since as societies become more complex, increasing scope and unpredictability of potential crises and faster dynamics of major incidents put increasingly stringent demands on CM. European CM capabilities already constitute a mature System of Systems; hence wholesale redesign would often be too costly and might critically destabilise existing CM capabilities. Therefore DRIVER focuses on augmenting rather than replacing existing capabilities and will aim at producing a comprehensive, well-balanced and cost-effective Portfolio of CM tools exploiting high potential RTD work from the last decade, not least in FP7 and FP6 projects. This portfolio will address not only needs of professional responders but also of society at large. DRIVER will carry out experimentation campaigns in three strands: tools and methods for responders, resilience of civil society and learning by both. The intra-strand experimentation leads into two Joint Experiment campaigns and a Final Demo focusing on challenges requiring highly complex interaction between CM tools. To evaluate and benchmark these CM tools, a strong evidence base for tool selection is crucial; to this end DRIVER will build a distributed European CM Test-bed, itself a major innovation. To maximise impact beyond the scope of the project and of the DRIVER consortium it is necessary to develop the sustainability of the European Test-bed, the exploitation of the DRIVER Portfolio of Tools and to make emerge a European CM community, which shares a common CM understanding and is increasingly willing to share capabilities and collaborate in CM innovation. These three objectives need and feed each other, thus developing Europes ability to continue adapting its CM capabilities to emerging needs long after the project end.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: DRS-09-2014 | Award Amount: 3.03M | Year: 2015

Significant challenges exist towards strengthening the Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) communities for coherent, mutually reinforcing and pragmatic planning and action. PLACARD seeks to support the coordination of these two communities. PLACARD will tackle current challenges by 1) providing a common space where CCA and DRR communities can come together, share experiences and create opportunities for collaboration; 2) facilitating communication and knowledge exchange between both communities; and 3) supporting the coordination and coherence of CCA and DRR research, policy and practice. PLACARDs approach to achieving these goals is to establish a strong and operational network of networks by connecting to existing networks and boundary organisations, to foster dialogue among stakeholders (e.g. researchers, research funders, policymakers, practitioners) engaged in CCA and DRR at the international, European, national and sub-national scales. This overarching network will enable these communities to share knowledge, to discuss challenges and to jointly co-produce options to bridge the gaps they experience. It will support the development and implementation of a research and innovation agenda to make better use of research funding, as well as to develop guidelines to strengthen relevant institutions in their efforts to mainstream CCA and DRR. PLACARD will evolve iteratively, learning from the different processes and experiences with the stakeholders, and being flexible and responsive to changing needs. PLACARD will be supported by an online platform that builds upon and links existing CCA and DRR platforms to streamline the dissemination and communication of CCA and DRR activities. PLACARD Consortium is built around the leadership of a number of key European institutions experienced in CCA and DRR policy and practice, and UN organizations leading and engaged inpost-2015 agendas.


The threat of infection by conventional transfusion-transmitted agents has been essentially eliminated from the blood supply in developed countries, thus focusing attention on the potential risk from emerging infections. Over recent years, actions have been taken to manage a number of such risks to blood safety. These illustrate the inherent variability of the agents concerned and of the measures needed to define and control the risk. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


The risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection from blood transfusion has aroused increasing concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential risk of HEV infection through blood transfusion in China. Qualified blood donations and donations with isolated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations from five geographically diverse Chinese regions were tested for anti-HEV immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG and HEV antigen. The positive samples for anti-HEV IgM and HEV antigen were tested for HEV RNA. HEV open reading frame (ORF)2 partial sequences were analyzed from HEV RNA-positive samples. The seroprevalence rates of HEV antigen and anti-HEV IgM and IgG among qualified donations were 0.06% (6/10,741), 1.02% (109/10,741), and 27.42% (2945/10,741), respectively. Samples with isolated ALT elevations had higher prevalence of HEV markers, namely, HEV antigen of 0.25% (2/797), anti-HEV IgM of 2.76% (22/797), and anti-HEV IgG of 40.02% (319/797). The HEV antibody prevalence varied significantly by age, sex, and geographic region. All 131 samples that were anti-HEV IgM positive were negative for HEV RNA, whereas four of eight (50%) samples positive for HEV antigen were HEV RNA positive. HEV ORF2 sequences from three of four HEV RNA-positive samples were determined and grouped with Genotype 4. Qualified donations after routine blood donor screening still carry potential risk for transmitting HEV. HEV antigen screening could be one measure to reduce the risk of HEV transmission by blood transfusion. © 2013 AABB.


Garratty G.,Red Cross
Blood Reviews | Year: 2010

Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is rare; it can be mild or associated with acute severe hemolytic anemia (HA) and death. About 125 drugs have been implicated as the cause. The HA can be caused by drug-independent antibodies that are indistinguishable, in vitro and in vivo, from autoantibodies causing idiopathic warm type autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). More commonly, the antibodies are drug-dependent (i.e., will only react in vitro in the presence of the drug). The most common drugs to cause DIIHA are anti-microbials (e.g., cefotetan, ceftriaxone and piperacillin), which are associated with drug-dependent antibodies. The most common drug to cause AIHA is fludarabine. Finding out which drug is causing the problem and stopping that drug is the first approach to therapy. It is not easy to identify the drug interactions accurately in vitro; laboratories specializing in this area can be of great help. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 193.12K | Year: 2015

The problem: Building climate change resilience necessarily means building urban resilience. Africas future is dominated by a rapidly increasing urban population with complicated demographic, economic, political, spatial and infrastructural transitions. This creates complex climate vulnerabilities of critical consequence in the co-dependent city-regions. Climate change substantially complicates the trajectories of African development, exacerbated by climate information that is poorly attuned to the needs of African decision makers. Critical gaps are how climate processes interact at the temporal and spatial scales that matter for decision making, limited institutional capacity to develop and then act on climate information, and inadequate means, methods, and structures to bridge the divides. Current modalities in climate services are largely supply driven and rarely begin with the multiplicity of climate sensitive development challenges. There is a dominant need to address this disconnect at the urban scale, yet climate research in Africa is poorly configured to respond, and the spatial scale and thematic foci are not well attuned to urban problems. Most climate-related policies and development strategies focus at the national scale and are sectorally based, resulting in a poor fit to the vital urban environments with their tightly interlocking place-based systems. Response: FRACTALs aim is to advance scientific knowledge about regional climate responses to anthropogenic forcings, enhance the integration of this knowledge into decision making at the co-dependent city-region scale, and thus enable responsible development pathways. We focus on city-region scales of climate information and decision making. Informed by the literature, guided by co-exploration with decision makers, we concentrate on two key cross-cutting issues: Water and Energy, and secondarily their influence on food security. We work within and across disciplinary boundaries (transdisciplinarity) and develop all aspects of the research process in collaboration with user groups (co-exploration).The project functions through three interconnected work packages focused on three Tier 1 cities (Windhoek, Maputo and Lusaka), a secondary focus on three Tier 2 cities (Blantyre, Gaborone and Harare), and two self-funded partner cities (Cape Town and eThekwini). Work Package 1 (WP1) is an ongoing and sustained activity operating as a learning laboratory for pilot studies to link research from WP2 and 3 to a real world iterative dialogue and decision process. WP1 frames, informs, and steers the research questions of WP2 and 3, and so centres all research on needs for responsible development pathways of city-region systems. WP2 addresses the decision making space in cities; the political, economic, technical and social determinants of decision making, and seeks to understand the opportunities for better incorporation of climate information into local decision making contexts. WP3, the majority effort, focuses on advancing understanding of the physical climate processes that govern the regional system, both as observed and simulated. This knowledge grounds the development of robust and scale relevant climate information, and the related analysis and communication. This is steered explicitly by WP1s perspective of urban climate change risk, resilience, impacts, and decisions for adaptation and development. The project will frame a new paradigm for user-informed, knowledge-based decisions to develop pathways to resilience for the majority population. It will provide a step change in understanding the cross-scale climate processes that drive change and so enable enhanced uptake of climate information in near to medium-term decision making. The project legacy will include improved scientific capacity and collaboration, provide transferable knowledge to enhance decision making on the African continent, and in this make significant contribution to academic disciplines.

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