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Rangel-Fajardo M.A.,Recursos Geneticos y Productividad | Zavaleta-Mancera H.A.,Colegio de Mexico | Cordova-Tellez L.,Recursos Geneticos y Productividad | Lopez-Andrade A.P.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares | And 3 more authors.
Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana | Year: 2012

The present research contributes knowledge of the embryo sac, seed anatomy and histochemistry of the Mexican cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) cv. 'Carmelo', and the relationship of these traits to seed recalcitrance. Flowers in anthesis and developing seeds were processed for anatomical (safranin and fast green) and histochemical evaluations of starch, lipids, proteins and tannins. It was found that the ovule is anatropous, crassinucellate and bitegmic with nuclear endosperm, characteristics significantly associated with recalcitrance of 45 dicotyledon families. The incipient growth of the inner tegument forms an endostome and exostome out of alignment. The embryo sac is formed by three antipodal cells, two synergids, one egg cell and one binucleated central cell. The inner integument (two to three layers) becomes thicker at the beginning of development (eight to 10 layers in 1 cm seeds), but afterwards it collapses. The outer integument (three to four layers at anthesis) is multiplicative; the mesotest divides (25 to 27 layers), and then it partially collapses. Mucilage sacs of testa originate from hypodermal cells of the exotesta. The fruit flesh is maintained attached to the testa, a trait associated to recalcitrance. The embryo shows a late growth, and the globular stage (40 μm) is present in seeds of 1 cm. Young cotyledons are straight and foliar (1.5 cm seeds), but at maturity they are thick and folded over the embryo axis. The endosperm is reduced to two layers at maturity. Cotyledons start to accumulate starch and proteins in seeds of 1.5 cm (Stage VI: fruits of 21.0 to 23.9 cm); lipids start when cotyledons folds (Stage VII: fruits of 21.0 to 23.9 cm), and tannins accumulate in idioblasts at the end of seed development.

Celis-Velazquez R.,Recursos Geneticos y Productividad | Pena-Valdivia C.B.,Colegio de Mexico | Luna-Cavazos M.,Colegio de Mexico | Aguirre R.,University Autono Ma Of San Luis Potosi
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia | Year: 2010

The seedling emergency depends on the seed physiological and biochemical characteristics, its reaction to the environment and efficiency to use its own reserves during the germination. The objective of the research was to relate the seminal morphology differences with the efficiency for using reserves on seedling emergence of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a domestication gradient. Six improved cultivars, three landraces and six wild accessions were sowed 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 cm depth, were sowed under greenhouse conditions. Seed weight, color, shine, tone and intensity of the seed coat color and proportion of cotyledons, coat and embryonic axis were quantified. Height, biomass of cotyledons, biomass accumulated in leaflets, hypocotyl and root, diameter and length of hypocotyl, and root length) were evaluated when seedlings showed the first trifoliate leaf. Analysis of variance, multiple mean comparison, and principal components and cluster multivariate analysis were carried out including seed and seedling morphological characteristics. It was determined that seed size and proportion of seed structures are the mean morphological characteristics for seeds typifying; cultivars are more efficient for using seed reserves for germination and seedling emergence; the seminal reserves are allocated to the seedling structures development in variable proportions and in dependence on the common bean type.

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