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Marrelli M.,University of Calabria | Menichini G.,Reconstructive Microsurgery Unit | Provenzano E.,Operative Unit of Dermatology | Conforti F.,University of Calabria
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Despite significant advances in early diagnosis and treatment, skin cancer is one of the leading causes of death. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic modality that is emerging as an important resource against malignant tumors. This strategy is based on the action of photosensitizers, i.e. of molecules which may accumulate preferentially inside tumor cells where they exert a cytotoxic effect after excitation by light at appropriate wavelengths. Some forms of skin cancers and also some non-tumor pathologies are now treated with PDT. Several compounds with photosensitizing activity have been identified, and some of these molecules are commercially available. Many photoactive principles are natural compounds. Numerous reviews in the last decade have focused on photodynamic therapy, its effects and applications, but less attention has been paid to plant extracts or molecules of natural origin studied for their phototoxic activity to date.This review critically examines the potential role of various plant extracts and naturally occurring compounds in the treatment of skin cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents, together with their known related cellular and molecular mechanisms, are presented and discussed. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Toia F.,University of Palermo | Marchese M.,Presidio | Boniforti B.,Ortopedia e Traumatologia Ospedale S. Andrea | Tos P.,Cto M Adelaide Hospital | Delcroix L.,Reconstructive Microsurgery Unit
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy | Year: 2013

Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the cutaneous vascularization of the hypothenar region and investigate the anatomical basis for perforator propeller flaps for coverage of the flexor aspect of the little finger. Methods: The area between the pisiform and the base of the little finger was studied in 14 hands of fresh cadavers injected with red latex. An oval flap 1.5 cm large was raised along the axis between these two points. Perforators going into the flap were dissected up to their origin from the ulnar palmar digital artery of the little finger, and their distance from the proximal edge of the A1 pulley was recorded. Results: The mean number of perforator arteries entering the flap was 5.8 (range 4-8). A constant sizeable perforator was identified within 0.7 cm from the proximal margin of the A1 pulley in all 14 specimens. In the majority of cases (64 %), the most distal perforator was located at this level. Dissection of the flap was carried out suprafascially on the most distal perforator and 180 rotation allowed the flap to reach the flexor surface of the fifth finger. The donor site was closed primarily. Conclusion: Distal perforators of the ulnar palmar digital artery of the little finger are constantly found. Our anatomical findings support the possibility of raising a propeller perforator flap from the hypothenar region for coverage of the flexor aspect of the little finger. Its clinical application could provide a quick and straightforward single-stage option with a negligible donor-site morbidity for reconstruction of such defects. © 2013 Springer-Verlag France.

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