Real Jardin Botanico CSIC

Murillo de Río Leza, Spain

Real Jardin Botanico CSIC

Murillo de Río Leza, Spain
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Meseguer A.S.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Aldasoro J.J.,Institute Botanic Of Barcelona Csic | Sanmartin I.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

The genus Hypericum L. (" St. John's wort", Hypericaceae) comprises nearly 500 species of shrubs, trees and herbs distributed mainly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but also in high-altitude tropical and subtropical areas. Until now, molecular phylogenetic hypotheses on infra-generic relationships have been based solely on the nuclear marker ITS. Here, we used a full Bayesian approach to simultaneously reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of morphological and range evolution in Hypericum, using nuclear (ITS) and plastid DNA sequences (psbA-trnH, trnS-trnG, trnL-trnF) of 186 species representing 33 of the 36 described morphological sections. Consistent with other studies, we found that corrections of the branch length prior helped recover more realistic branch lengths in by-gene partitioned Bayesian analyses, but the effect was also seen within single genes if the overall mutation rate differed considerably among sites or regions. Our study confirms that Hypericum is not monophyletic with the genus Triadenum embedded within, and rejects the traditional infrageneric classification, with many sections being para- or polyphyletic. The small Western Palearctic sections Elodes and Adenotrias are the sister-group of a geographic dichotomy between a mainly New World clade and a large Old World clade. Bayesian reconstruction of morphological character states and range evolution show a complex pattern of morphological plasticity and inter-continental movement within the genus. The ancestors of Hypericum were probably tropical shrubs that migrated from Africa to the Palearctic in the Early Tertiary, concurrent with the expansion of tropical climates in northern latitudes. Global climate cooling from the Mid Tertiary onwards might have promoted adaptation to temperate conditions in some lineages, such as the development of the herbaceous habit or unspecialized corollas. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

van den Berg A.H.,University of Aberdeen | McLaggan D.,University of Aberdeen | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | van West P.,University of Aberdeen
Fungal Biology Reviews | Year: 2013

A very large number of diseases in agriculture and aquaculture are caused by fungal-like micro-organisms, classified as Oomycetes or water moulds. Collectively, oomycetes represent a huge threat to global food security. In addition, several oomycetes can cause environmental disasters, by wiping out native species of trees, crustacians and amphibians. The group representing the aquatic oomycetes are relatively understudied in contrast to their terrestrial counterparts that predominantly infect plants (e.g. Phytophthora, Pythium and Bremia spp.). This review focuses on the unique characteristics of two aquatic Oomycetes, Saprolegnia parasitica and Saprolegnia diclina with respect to their impact on aquaculture, animal health and the surrounding environment. The species characteristics, ecology, biology, infectivity and identification methods are described and the latest research insights are discussed. © 2013 The British Mycological Society.

Gherardi F.,University of Florence | Aquiloni L.,University of Florence | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Tricarico E.,University of Florence
Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2011

Given that the impact exerted by non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS) is most often severe, can occur across many levels of ecological organization, and results in the loss of native crayfish populations, the Convention on Biological Diversity approach, as complemented by the European Strategy, is viewed as an excellent framework to be followed to prevent the introduction of NICS and to alleviate or eliminate the damage they inflict. Much effort should be directed to minimize the risks of intentional introductions, as in part done by the Council Regulation No. 708/07 in force in the European Union since 2009. However, this and other regulations are not well harmonized, for instance, with those concerning both the aquarium trade and the harvest of crayfish for human consumption. To make prevention more difficult, there are many records of illegal release of NICS into the wild and of their accidental introduction as undetected contaminants in batches of regulated fish species. As a consequence, it seems necessary that post-introduction mitigation and remediation protocols and processes, such as contingency plans, are always in place to enable rapid detection and early response in order to minimize and, ideally, annul the threats posed by NICS. The aim of this review paper is to offer a synthetic view of the different methods (mechanical removal, physical methods, biological control, biocides, and autocidal methods) proposed and adopted until now to control NICS with a discussion of their pitfalls and potentialities. A glimpse to the ongoing research in the matter will be also given. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

Aquiloni L.,University of Florence | Martin M.P.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Gherardi F.,University of Florence | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
Biological Invasions | Year: 2011

Aphanomyces astaci (Saprolegniales, Oomycetes) is classified among the 100 world's worst invasive species. This species is endemic to North America and has been introduced into Europe by imports of their hosts, the North American crayfish species. As a consequence, extensive mass mortalities involved several populations of the European crayfish. Here, we checked its occurrence in four Italian populations of Procambarus clarkii, the most widespread alien crayfish in Italy. Digital image analyses and image processing techniques were used to select micro-melanized areas in the subabdominal cuticle of 2-10 crayfish per population. All the selected areas tested positive for A. astaci ITS nrDNA specific primers; moreover, the obtained sequences clearly corresponded to A. astaci, thus revealing that P. clarkii is an active carrier of this oomycete in Italy. Decisions are to be urgently made to control the spread of both P. clarkii and A. astaci for the conservation of the indigenous crayfish biodiversity. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Fernandez-Beneitez M.J.,University of Salamanca | Ortiz-Santaliestra M.E.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos UCLM CSIC JCCM | Lizana M.,University of Salamanca | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
Oecologia | Year: 2011

Many amphibians are known to suffer embryonic die-offs as a consequence of Saprolegnia infections; however, little is known about the action mechanisms of Saprolegnia and the host-pathogen relationships. In this study, we have isolated and characterized the species of Saprolegnia responsible for infections of embryos of natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) and Western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) in mountainous areas of Central Spain. We also assessed the influence of the developmental stage within the embryonic period on the susceptibility to the Saprolegnia species identified. Only one strain of Saprolegnia was isolated from B. calamita and identified as S. diclina. For P. cultripes, both S. diclina and S. ferax were identified. Healthy embryos of both amphibian species suffered increased mortality rates when exposed to the Saprolegnia strains isolated from individuals of the same population. Embryonic developmental stage was crucial in determining the sensitivity of embryos to Saprolegnia infection. The mortalities of P. cultripes and B. calamita embryos exposed at Gosner stages 15 (rotation) and 19 (heart beating) were almost total 72 h after challenge with Saprolegnia, while those exposed at stage 12 (late gastrula) showed no significant effects at that time. This is the first study to demonstrate the role of embryonic development on the sensitivity of amphibians to Saprolegnia. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Mateo R.G.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Mateo R.G.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Croat T.B.,Missouri Botanical Garden | Felicisimo A.M.,University of Extremadura | Munoz J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2010

Aim The presence-only data stored in natural history collections is the most important source of information available regarding the distribution of organisms. These data and profile techniques can be used to generate species distribution models (SDMs), but pseudo-absences must be generated to use group discriminative techniques. In this study, we evaluated whether the SDMs generated with pseudo-absences are reliable and also if there are differences in the results obtained with profile and group discriminative techniques. Location Ecuador, South America. Methods The SDMs were generated with a training data set for each of the five species of Anthurium and six different methods: two profile techniques (BIOCLIM and Gower's distance index), three group discriminative techniques [logistic multiple regression (LMR), multivariate adaptative regression splines (MARS) and Maxent] and a mixed modelling approach genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP), which employs a combination of profile and group discriminative techniques and generates its own pseudo-absences. For LMR, MARS and Maxent, three types of absences were generated: (1) random pseudo-absences in equal number to presences and excluding a buffer area around presences (except for Maxent, which assumes that this background sample includes presences), (2) a large number (10,000) of random pseudo-absences, also excluding a buffer area around each presence and (3) 'target-group absences' (TGA), consisting of sites where other species of the group have been collected by the specialist, but not the species being modelled. To compare the predictive performance of the SDMs, the area under the curve statistic was calculated using an independent testing data set for each species. Results MARS, Maxent and LMR produce better results than the profile techniques. The models created with TGA are generally more accurate than those generated with pseudo-absences. Main conclusions The advantages and disadvantages of different options for using pseudo-absences and TGA with profile and group discriminative modelling techniques are explained and recommendations are made for the future. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Mateo R.G.,University of Liège | Felicisimo A.M.,University of Extremadura | Pottier J.,University of Lausanne | Guisan A.,University of Lausanne | Munoz J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of stacked species distribution models in predicting the alpha and gamma species diversity patterns of two important plant clades along elevation in the Andes. We modelled the distribution of the species in the Anthurium genus (53 species) and the Bromeliaceae family (89 species) using six modelling techniques. We combined all of the predictions for the same species in ensemble models based on two different criteria: the average of the rescaled predictions by all techniques and the average of the best techniques. The rescaled predictions were then reclassified into binary predictions (presence/absence). By stacking either the original predictions or binary predictions for both ensemble procedures, we obtained four different species richness models per taxa. The gamma and alpha diversity per elevation band (500 m) was also computed. To evaluate the prediction abilities for the four predictions of species richness and gamma diversity, the models were compared with the real data along an elevation gradient that was independently compiled by specialists. Finally, we also tested whether our richness models performed better than a null model of altitudinal changes of diversity based on the literature. Stacking of the ensemble prediction of the individual species models generated richness models that proved to be well correlated with the observed alpha diversity richness patterns along elevation and with the gamma diversity derived from the literature. Overall, these models tend to overpredict species richness. The use of the ensemble predictions from the species models built with different techniques seems very promising for modelling of species assemblages. Stacking of the binary models reduced the over-prediction, although more research is needed. The randomisation test proved to be a promising method for testing the performance of the stacked models, but other implementations may still be developed. © 2012 Mateo et al.

Feliner G.N.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
Taxon | Year: 2011

Interpretations of current diversity patterns based on the contraction/expansion model forced by climatic oscillations during the last two million years are commonplace in phylogeographic literature. Of the wealth of scientific studies accumulated during the past two decades in Europe, the ones we understand best are those mostly from higher latitudes, probably because patterns were simplified to a great extent by major losses of diversity during glacial periods. In Southern European regions (or in general, in those places where ice effects were less severe) the situation is quite different and to some extent opposite. These regions are referred to as refugia because they are known to contain more genetic diversity than elsewhere. This is not only due to preservation of genotypes that went extinct in other places, however, but also to the intensity and accumulation of a number of processes in a patchy landscape across a varied topography. A lack of general phylogeographic patterns in these regions is one consequence. Speaking of a single refugium to refer to each of the peninsulas, however, is an oversimplification. Even speaking of multiple unconnected refugia does not adequately reflect the complexity of the processes that shaped the current genetic and specific diversity.

Sandoval-Sierra J.V.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Martin M.P.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
Fungal Biology | Year: 2014

The lack of a robust taxonomy in the genus Saprolegnia is leading to the presence of incorrectly named isolates in culture collections and of an increasing number of misassigned sequences in DNA databases. Accurate species delimitation is critical for most biological disciplines. A recently proposed approach to solve species delimitation (taxonomic diagnosis system) of difficult organisms is the definition of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). We have used 961 sequences of nrDNA ITS from culture collections (461 sequences) and GenBank (500 sequences), to perform phylogenetic and clustering optimization analyses. As result, we have identified 29 DNA-based MOTUs in agreement with phylogenetic studies. The resulting molecular clusters support the validity of 18 species of Saprolegnia and identify 11 potential new ones. We have also listed a number of incorrectly named isolates in culture collections, misassigned species names to GenBank sequences, and reference sequences for the species. We conclude that GenBank represents the main source of errors for identifying Saprolegnia species since it possesses sequences with misassigned names and also sequencing errors. The presented taxonomic diagnosis system might help setting the basis for a suitable identification of species in this economically important genus. © 2013.

Calvo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Calvo J.,Museo Ecuatoriano Of Ciencias Naturales Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Phytotaxa | Year: 2015

Senecio eliseae is described as a new species from the southern Ecuadorian Andes. It is a suffrutescent herb characterized by erect branches that are leaved only in the upper half, yellow discoid nodding capitula, and glandular-hirsute indumentum on the stem, leaves, and synflorescence. Detailed photographs of plants from the type locality are provided. © 2015 Magnolia Press.

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