Murillo de Río Leza, Spain
Murillo de Río Leza, Spain

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Santos-Gally R.,University of Seville | Vargas P.,Real Jardin Botanico | Arroyo J.,University of Seville
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim Our aims were: (1) to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of daffodils (Narcissus), focusing on the lowland subgenus Hermione and the mountain section Apodanthi; (2) to estimate the temporal setting of diversification; (3) to reconstruct the migration patterns of the lineages; and (4) to examine the microevolutionary differentiation of the wide-ranging Narcissus tazetta group across the Mediterranean. Location The Mediterranean Basin. Methods Plastid (trnT-L, trnL-F and ndhF) sequences were obtained from 63 populations representing 23 species of Narcissus and combined with published data from 16 species. Phylogenetic relationships and dating were inferred by Bayesian analysis based on geological events and divergence estimates of closely related taxa. A dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis analysis was performed using maximum likelihood methods to infer ancestral geographical distributions, and phylogeographical reconstruction was performed using coalescence analysis. Results Subgenus Hermione is not recognized as a monophyletic group because two of the nine species were found to have a close relationship with the subgenus Narcissus. The results on section Apodanthi confirmed previous findings of its monophyly and phylogenetic relationships within this mountain group. Molecular dating and ancestral range reconstructions suggest that the ancestor of Narcissus originated in the Iberian Peninsula during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. Eastward expansion of the lineage range proceeded from the western Mediterranean and involved colonization of mountain ranges in northern Africa. The phylogeography of the N. tazetta group revealed a widespread distribution of certain haplotypes, suggesting wide dispersal and a high level of colonization in the Mediterranean Basin. Main conclusions Our study points to the role of three key historical events in Narcissus diversification: tectonic shifts of the Alboran domain in the western Mediterranean, the Messinian salinity crisis, and the onset of the Mediterranean climate followed by periods of repeated glaciation. Diversification of section Apodanthi probably resulted from allopatric speciation, while subgenus Hermione may have shown more sympatric speciation and high dispersal, despite the lack of apparent adaptations to long-distance dispersal. This is best exemplified by the presence of both ancestral and recent haplotypes of N. tazetta across the Mediterranean. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Pino-Bodas R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin M.P.,Real Jardin Botanico | Burgaz A.R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lumbsch H.T.,Field Museum
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2013

The lichen-forming fungal genus Cladonia is species-rich with approximately 500 described species. The accepted barcode for fungi (ITS rDNA) often fails in identifying Cladonia spp. In order to find other markers that, in combination with the ITS rDNA region can be used for species identification in Cladonia, we studied the loci IGS rDNA, ef1α, rpb2 and cox1. A total of 782 sequences from 36 species have been analyzed. PCR amplification success rate, intraspecific and interspecific genetic distance variation, calculated using the K2P model, and the correct identification percentage (PCI) were taken into account to assess possible barcode regions. The marker showing the least intraspecific genetic distance range was cox1, followed by ITS rDNA and ef1α. Of the five studied markers only cox1 showed a barcoding gap. The rpb2 locus showed the highest PCI values, but it was the most difficult to amplify. The highest correct identification rates using blast method were obtained with rpb2. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Aguilar M.,Real Jardin Botanico | Lado C.,Real Jardin Botanico
ISME Journal | Year: 2012

Habitat availability and environmental preferences of species are among the most important factors in determining the success of dispersal processes and therefore in shaping the distribution of protists. We explored the differences in fundamental niches and potential distributions of an ecological guild of slime mouldsprotosteloid amoebaein the Iberian Peninsula. A large set of samples collected in a north-east to south-west transect of approximately 1000 km along the peninsula was used to test the hypothesis that, together with the existence of suitable microhabitats, climate conditions may determine the probability of survival of species. Although protosteloid amoebae share similar morphologies and life history strategies, canonical correspondence analyses showed that they have varied ecological optima, and that climate conditions have an important effect in niche differentiation. Maxent environmental niche models provided consistent predictions of the probability of presence of the species based on climate data, and they were used to generate maps of potential distribution in an everything is everywhere scenario. The most important climatic factors were, in both analyses, variables that measure changes in conditions throughout the year, confirming that the alternation of fruiting bodies, cysts and amoeboid stages in the life cycles of protosteloid amoebae constitutes an advantage for surviving in a changing environment. Microhabitat affinity seems to be influenced by climatic conditions, which suggests that the micro-environment may vary at a local scale and change together with the external climate at a larger scale. © 2012 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

Antonelli A.,Gothenburg Botanical Garden | Sanmartin I.,Real Jardin Botanico
Taxon | Year: 2011

The Neotropical region (tropical America) is the most species rich region on Earth. Several causes have been proposed to explain this extraordinary biodiversity, which may be very roughly classified into two major categories: 'biotic' (e.g. soil adaptations; biotic interactions with pollinators, dispersers and herbivores; niche conservatism; dispersal ability) and 'abiotic' (e.g. time; rainfall, temperature and area; mountain uplift; hydrological changes). In this paper we review the evidence for each of these postulated causes of diversification and provide general directions towards further testing. We highlight the need of more well-sampled and dated phylogenies and urge increased inter-disciplinary collaboration.

Fernandez-Mazuecos M.,Real Jardin Botanico | Vargas P.,Real Jardin Botanico
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Population genetic theory holds that oceanic island populations are expected to have lower levels of genetic variation than their mainland counterparts, due to founder effect after island colonization from the continent. Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae) is distributed in both the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean region. Numerous phylogenetic results obtained in the last years allow performing further phylogeographic analyses in Cistus. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed sequences from multiple plastid DNA regions in 47 populations of Cistus monspeliensis from the Canary Islands (21 populations) and the Mediterranean basin (26 populations). The time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogeographic analyses yielded the following results: (1) a single, ancestral haplotype is distributed across the Mediterranean, whereas 10 haplotypes in the Canary Islands; (2) four haplotype lineages are present in the Canarian Islands; (3) multiple colonization events across the archipelago are inferred; (4) the earliest split of intraspecific lineages occurred in the Early to Middle Pleistocene (<930,000 years BP). Conclusions/Significance: The contrasting pattern of cpDNA variation is best explained by genetic bottlenecks in the Mediterranean during Quaternary glaciations, while the Canarian archipelago acted as a refugium of high levels of genetic diversity. Active colonization across the Canarian islands is supported not only by the distribution of C. monspeliensis in five of the seven islands, but also by our phylogeographic reconstruction in which unrelated haplotypes are present on the same island. Widespread distribution of thermophilous habitats on every island, as those found throughout the Mediterranean, has likely been responsible for the successful colonization of C. monspeliensis, despite the absence of a long-distance dispersal mechanism. This is the first example of a plant species with higher genetic variation among oceanic island populations than among those of the continent. © 2011 Fernández-Mazuecos, Vargas. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Morales R.,Real Jardin Botanico
Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid | Year: 2011

The identification of 223 collections of the Lamiaceae family, from Bioko island, Rio Muni (Equatorial Guinea mainland) and Annobon, corresponding to 14 genera and 28 species, is presented. A key of genera and, in each genus, a key of species are included. The basionym and type material, a brief description, the known chromosomic numbers, the distribution area and some known popular uses from each species, also included are photographs of sheets and distribution maps. Some biogeographical aspects about the generic and specific distribution in the studied area are discussed. Calaminta pseudosimensis (Brenan) R. Morales, comb. nov. is proposed.

Fernandez-Mazuecos M.,Real Jardin Botanico | Vargas P.,Real Jardin Botanico
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

The lack of a comparative approach makes it impossible to determine the main factors influencing colonization and evolution in plants. Here we conducted the first comparative study of a characteristic Mediterranean lineage (white-flowered Cistus) taking advantage of its well-known phylogenetic relationships. A two-scale approach was applied to address the hypothesis of higher levels of isolation in mountain than in lowland species. First, a time-calibrated phylogeny using plastid sequences of Cistaceae suggested that the origin of Cistus species postdated both the refilling of the Mediterranean Sea (5.59-5.33 Ma) and the onset of the Mediterranean climate (3.2 Ma). Two hundred and sixty-three additional, plastid sequences from 111 populations showed different numbers of haplotypes in C. laurifolius (7), C. monspeliensis (2) and C. salviifolius (7). Although haplotype sharing among disjunct populations was observed in all species, phylogeographic analyses revealed haplotype lineages exclusive to Europe or Africa only in the mountain species (C. laurifolius). Isolation by either geographical distance or sea barriers was not significantly supported for the lowland species (C. monspeliensis; C. ladanifer from a previous study). The same is true for the less habitat-specific species of the lineage (C. salviifolius). Comparative phylogeography of the Cistus species leads us to interpret a general pattern of active colonization surpassing Mediterranean barriers. In contrast, ecological conditions (precipitation, temperature, soils) appear to have determined the distribution of the Cistus species of Mediterranean mountains. This study further provides molecular evidence for multiple colonization patterns in the course of successful adaptation of Cistus species to Mediterranean habitats. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Melida H.,Albanova University Center | Sandoval-Sierra J.V.,Real Jardin Botanico | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico | Bulone V.,Albanova University Center
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2013

Some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens belong to the oomycete class. The cell walls of these microorganisms represent an excellent target for disease control, but their carbohydrate composition is elusive. We have undertaken a detailed cell wall analysis in 10 species from 2 major oomycete orders, the Peronosporales and the Saprolegniales, thereby unveiling the existence of 3 clearly different cell wall types: type I is devoid of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) but contains glucuronic acid and mannose; type II contains up to 5% GlcNAc and residues indicative of cross-links between cellulose and 1,3-β-glucans; type III is characterized by the highest GlcNAc content (>5%) and the occurrence of unusual carbohydrates that consist of 1,6-linked GlcNAc residues. These 3 cell wall types are also distinguishable by their cellulose content and the fine structure of their 1,3-β- glucans. We propose a cell wall paradigm for oomycetes that can serve as a basis for the establishment of cell wall architectural models and the further identification of cell wall subtypes. This paradigm is complementary to morphological and molecular criteria for taxonomic grouping and provides useful information for unraveling poorly understood cell wall carbohydrate biosynthetic pathways through the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Nieto Feliner G.,Real Jardin Botanico
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics | Year: 2014

Phylogeography, born to bridge population genetics and phylogenetics in an explicit geographic context, has provided a successful platform for unveiling species evolutionary histories. The Mediterranean Basin, one of the earth's 25 biodiversity hotspots, is known for its complex geological and palaeoclimatic history. Aiming to throw light on the causes and circumstances that underlie such a rich biota, a review of the phylogeographic literature on plant lineages from the Mediterranean Basin is presented focusing on two levels. First, phylogeographic patterns are examined, arranged by potential driving forces such as longitude, latitude - and its interaction with altitude -, straits or glacial refugia. Spatial coincidences in phylogeographic splits are found but, in comparison to other regions such as the Alps or North America, no largely common phylogeographic patterns across species are found in this region. Factors contributing to phylogeographic complexity and scarcity of common patterns include less drastic effects of Pleistocene glaciations than other temperate regions, environmental heterogeneity, the blurring of genetic footprints via admixing over time and, for older lineages, possibly a greater stochasticity due to the accumulation of responses to palaeoclimatic changes. At a second level, processes inferred in phylogeographically framed studies that are potential drivers of evolution are examined. These include gradual range expansion, vicariance, long-distance dispersal, radiations, hybridization and introgression, changes in reproductive system, and determinants of successful colonization. Future phylogeographic studies have a great potential to help explaining biodiversity patterns of plant groups and understanding why the Basin has come to be one of the biodiversity hotspots on earth. This potential is based on the crucial questions that can be addressed when geographic gaps are adequately filled (mainly northern Africa and the eastern part of the region), on the important contribution of younger lineages - for which phylogeographic approaches are most useful - to the whole diversity of the Basin, and on the integration of new methods, particularly those that allow refining the search for spatio-temporal concordance across genealogies. © 2014 Geobotanisches Institut ETH, Stiftung Ruebel.

Fernandez-Alonso J.L.,Real Jardin Botanico
Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid | Year: 2010

The shruby new species, Hyptis jacobi Fern. Alonso, only known from the central Chicamocha valley (Department of Santander) in the western slope of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia, is described and illustrated. This species is related to the Andine H. tafallae (Sect. Umbellatae) but is quite different from other Hyptis previously known from Colombia.

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