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Gherardi F.,University of Florence | Aquiloni L.,University of Florence | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Tricarico E.,University of Florence
Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2011

Given that the impact exerted by non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS) is most often severe, can occur across many levels of ecological organization, and results in the loss of native crayfish populations, the Convention on Biological Diversity approach, as complemented by the European Strategy, is viewed as an excellent framework to be followed to prevent the introduction of NICS and to alleviate or eliminate the damage they inflict. Much effort should be directed to minimize the risks of intentional introductions, as in part done by the Council Regulation No. 708/07 in force in the European Union since 2009. However, this and other regulations are not well harmonized, for instance, with those concerning both the aquarium trade and the harvest of crayfish for human consumption. To make prevention more difficult, there are many records of illegal release of NICS into the wild and of their accidental introduction as undetected contaminants in batches of regulated fish species. As a consequence, it seems necessary that post-introduction mitigation and remediation protocols and processes, such as contingency plans, are always in place to enable rapid detection and early response in order to minimize and, ideally, annul the threats posed by NICS. The aim of this review paper is to offer a synthetic view of the different methods (mechanical removal, physical methods, biological control, biocides, and autocidal methods) proposed and adopted until now to control NICS with a discussion of their pitfalls and potentialities. A glimpse to the ongoing research in the matter will be also given. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

Feliner G.N.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
Taxon | Year: 2011

Interpretations of current diversity patterns based on the contraction/expansion model forced by climatic oscillations during the last two million years are commonplace in phylogeographic literature. Of the wealth of scientific studies accumulated during the past two decades in Europe, the ones we understand best are those mostly from higher latitudes, probably because patterns were simplified to a great extent by major losses of diversity during glacial periods. In Southern European regions (or in general, in those places where ice effects were less severe) the situation is quite different and to some extent opposite. These regions are referred to as refugia because they are known to contain more genetic diversity than elsewhere. This is not only due to preservation of genotypes that went extinct in other places, however, but also to the intensity and accumulation of a number of processes in a patchy landscape across a varied topography. A lack of general phylogeographic patterns in these regions is one consequence. Speaking of a single refugium to refer to each of the peninsulas, however, is an oversimplification. Even speaking of multiple unconnected refugia does not adequately reflect the complexity of the processes that shaped the current genetic and specific diversity.

Calvo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | Calvo J.,Museo Ecuatoriano Of Ciencias Naturales Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Phytotaxa | Year: 2015

Senecio eliseae is described as a new species from the southern Ecuadorian Andes. It is a suffrutescent herb characterized by erect branches that are leaved only in the upper half, yellow discoid nodding capitula, and glandular-hirsute indumentum on the stem, leaves, and synflorescence. Detailed photographs of plants from the type locality are provided. © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Fernandez-Beneitez M.J.,University of Salamanca | Ortiz-Santaliestra M.E.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos UCLM CSIC JCCM | Lizana M.,University of Salamanca | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC
Oecologia | Year: 2011

Many amphibians are known to suffer embryonic die-offs as a consequence of Saprolegnia infections; however, little is known about the action mechanisms of Saprolegnia and the host-pathogen relationships. In this study, we have isolated and characterized the species of Saprolegnia responsible for infections of embryos of natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) and Western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) in mountainous areas of Central Spain. We also assessed the influence of the developmental stage within the embryonic period on the susceptibility to the Saprolegnia species identified. Only one strain of Saprolegnia was isolated from B. calamita and identified as S. diclina. For P. cultripes, both S. diclina and S. ferax were identified. Healthy embryos of both amphibian species suffered increased mortality rates when exposed to the Saprolegnia strains isolated from individuals of the same population. Embryonic developmental stage was crucial in determining the sensitivity of embryos to Saprolegnia infection. The mortalities of P. cultripes and B. calamita embryos exposed at Gosner stages 15 (rotation) and 19 (heart beating) were almost total 72 h after challenge with Saprolegnia, while those exposed at stage 12 (late gastrula) showed no significant effects at that time. This is the first study to demonstrate the role of embryonic development on the sensitivity of amphibians to Saprolegnia. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

van den Berg A.H.,University of Aberdeen | McLaggan D.,University of Aberdeen | Dieguez-Uribeondo J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC | van West P.,University of Aberdeen
Fungal Biology Reviews | Year: 2013

A very large number of diseases in agriculture and aquaculture are caused by fungal-like micro-organisms, classified as Oomycetes or water moulds. Collectively, oomycetes represent a huge threat to global food security. In addition, several oomycetes can cause environmental disasters, by wiping out native species of trees, crustacians and amphibians. The group representing the aquatic oomycetes are relatively understudied in contrast to their terrestrial counterparts that predominantly infect plants (e.g. Phytophthora, Pythium and Bremia spp.). This review focuses on the unique characteristics of two aquatic Oomycetes, Saprolegnia parasitica and Saprolegnia diclina with respect to their impact on aquaculture, animal health and the surrounding environment. The species characteristics, ecology, biology, infectivity and identification methods are described and the latest research insights are discussed. © 2013 The British Mycological Society.

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