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Reading, United Kingdom

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Wolever T.M.S.,Index Inc | Gibbs A.L.,University of Toronto | Brand-Miller J.,University of Sydney | Duncan A.M.,University of Guelph | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2011

Background: There is increasing global acceptance that viscous soluble fibers lower serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but most evidence for this comes from studies in Caucasians. To see if oat -glucan lowers LDL-C in Caucasians and non-Caucasians we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the results of a randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center clinical trial whose primary aim was to determine if molecular-weight (MW) influenced the LDL-C-lowering effect of oat -glucan. Results: Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects with LDL-C-C 3.0 and 5.0 mmol/L (n = 786 screened, n = 400 ineligible, n = 19 refused, n = 367 randomized, n = 345 completed, n = 1 excluded for missing ethnicity) were randomly assigned to consume cereal containing wheat-fiber (Control, n = 74:13 Caucasian:non-Caucasian) or 3 g high-MW (3H, 2,250,000 g/mol, n = 67:19), 4 g medium-MW (4 M, 850,000 g/mol, n = 50:17), 3 g medium-MW (3M, 530,000 g/mol, n = 54:9) or 4 g low-MW (4 L, 210,000 g/mol, n = 51:12) oat -glucan daily for 4 weeks. LDL-C after 4 weeks was influenced by baseline LDL-C (p < 0.001) and treatment (p = 0.003), but not ethnicity (p = 0.74). In all subjects, compared to control, 3 H, 4 M and 3 M reduced LDL-C significantly by 4.8 to 6.5%, but 4 L had no effect. Compared to control, the bioactive oat -glucan treatments (3H, 4M and 3M) reduced LDL-C by a combined mean (95% CI) of 0.18 (0.06, 0.31) mmol/L (4.8%, n = 171, p = 0.004) in Caucasians, a value not significantly different from the 0.37 (0.09, 0.65) mmol/L (10.3%, n = 45, p = 0.008) reduction in non-Caucasians. Conclusion: We conclude that oat -glucan reduces LDL-C in both Caucasians and non-Caucasians; there was insufficient power to determine if the magnitude of LDL-C-lowering differed by ethnicity. © 2011 Wolever et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Jawad R.,King's College London | Drake A.F.,King's College London | Elleman C.,Reading Scientific Services Ltd. | Martin G.P.,King's College London | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014

This article reports on the stereochemical aspects of the chemical stability of lactose solutions stored between 25 and 60 °C. The lactose used for the preparation of the aqueous solutions was α-lactose monohydrate with an anomer purity of 96% α and 4% β based on the supplied certificate of analysis (using a GC analytical protocol), which was further confirmed here by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Aliquots of lactose solutions were collected at different time points after the solutions were prepared and freeze-dried to remove water and halt epimerization for subsequent analysis by NMR. Epimerization was also monitored by polarimetry and infrared spectroscopy using a specially adapted Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) method. Hydrolysis was analyzed by ion chromatography. The three different analytical approaches unambiguously showed that the epimerization of lactose in aqueous solution follows first order reversible kinetics between 25 to 60 °C. The overall rate constant was 4.4 × 10-4 s-1 ± 0.9 (± standard deviation (SD)) at 25 °C. The forward rate constant was 1.6 times greater than the reverse rate constant, leading to an equilibrium constant of 1.6 ± 0.1 (±SD) at 25 °C. The rate of epimerization for lactose increased with temperature and an Arrhenius plot yielded an activation energy of +52.3 kJ/mol supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism of lactose epimerization involves the formation of extremely short-lived intermediate structures. The main mechanism affecting lactose stability is epimerization, as no permanent hydrolysis or chemical degradation was observed. When preparing aqueous solutions of lactose, immediate storage in an ice bath at 0 °C will allow approximately 3 min (180 s) of analysis time before the anomeric ratio alters significantly (greater than 1%) from the solid state composition of the starting material. In contrast a controlled anomeric composition (∼38% α and ∼62% β) will be achieved if an aqueous solution is left to equilibrate for over 4 h at 25 °C, while increasing the temperature up to 60 °C rapidly reduces the required equilibration time. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Ruxton C.H.,Nutrition Communications | Hart V.A.,Reading Scientific Services Ltd
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

There is a belief that caffeinated drinks, such as tea, may adversely affect hydration. This was investigated in a randomised controlled trial. Healthy resting males (n 21) were recruited from the general population. Following 24 h of abstention from caffeine, alcohol and vigorous physical activity, including a 10 h overnight fast, all men underwent four separate test days in a counter-balanced order with a 5 d washout in between. The test beverages, provided at regular intervals, were 4 Ã-240 ml black (i.e. regular) tea and 6 Ã-240 ml black tea, providing 168 or 252 mg of caffeine. The controls were identical amounts of boiled water. The tea was prepared in a standardised way from tea bags and included 20 ml of semi-skimmed milk. All food taken during the 12 h intervention period was controlled, and subjects remained at rest. No other beverages were offered. Blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h, and a 24 h urine sample was collected. Outcome variables were whole blood cell count, Na, K, bicarbonate, total protein, urea, creatinine and osmolality for blood; and total volume, colour, Na, K, creatinine and osmolality for urine. Although data for all twenty-one participants were included in the analysis (mean age 36 years and mean BMI 25•8 kg/m 2), nineteen men completed all conditions. Statistical analysis, using a factorial ANOVA approach within PROC MIXED, revealed no significant differences between tea and water for any of the mean blood or urine measurements. It was concluded that black tea, in the amounts studied, offered similar hydrating properties to water. © 2011 The Authors.


Jawad R.,King's College London | Elleman C.,Reading Scientific Services Ltd. | Vermeer L.,King's College London | Drake A.F.,King's College London | And 3 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Reports of the anomeric composition of amorphous lactose are rare and state a highly variable range of composition (between 0% and 60% w/w β content).We aimed to develop a quantitative measurement by 1H-NMR of α and β anomer content in amorphous lactose produced by different production methods. Methods: Amorphous lactose was prepared by spray and freeze drying 10% w/v aqueous solutions of lactose. NMR analysis was performed in DMSO; peak areas of partially resolved doublets at 6.3 and 6.6 ppm were used to calculate % of α and β lactose present. Polarimetery was used to determine optical rotation of lactose solutions. Results: Observed specific rotation for supplied crystalline alpha lactose monohydrate of 88° recorded in DMSO was constant for the length of a typical NMR experiment (max. 10 min). β/αanomer contents of amorphous lactose measured by 1H-NMR had standard deviations as low as 0.1% w/w (n=6). Drying a lactose solution 4 h after its preparation led to almost 35% w/w difference in anomer composition within solid amorphous material compared to samples dried after only 30 min, e.g. for freeze dried samples, β content was 60±0.1% w/w (4 h) and 25±1.0% w/w (30 min). Mutarotation leads to this increase in β anomer concentration in aqueous solution and within the solid amorphous lactose stored at 25° C e.g. after 56 d storage the βcontent of freeze dried lactose (30 min solution) increased from 25±1.0% to 50±0.5% w/w. Conclusion: A simple solution-based 1H-NMR method for measurement of anomeric composition of lactose has been established. The solution β/α ratio at the time of drying is mirrored in the composition of the resulting solid amorphous material. In order to produce a consistent anomer composition within spray and freeze dried amorphous lactose, the standing time for the feed solution should be greater than 4 h, such that the most dynamic region of the mutarotation profile has been exceeded. If the amorphous material has been formed from a solution that has not been allowed to equilibrate for 4 h, the resulting solid will continue to undergo mutarotation if trace amounts of moisture are present, until the anomeric β/α ratio slowly approaches 1.7. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Ridgway K.,Reading Scientific Services Ltd.
Food Engineering and Ingredients | Year: 2010

The presence of compounds causing taints and offflavours in food is a major concern to the food industry. However, the identification of these chemicals in foods presents an analytical challenge due to the complexity of the matrix, the need for sensitive methodologies and the commercial pressure for rapid results.


Wolever T.M.S.,Index Inc | Tosh S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Gibbs A.L.,University of Toronto | Brand-Miller J.,University of Sydney | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Consumption of 3 g oat β-glucan/d is considered sufficient to lower serum LDL cholesterol, but some studies have shown no effect. LDL cholesterol lowering by oat β-glucan may depend on viscosity, which is controlled by the molecular weight (MW) and amount of oat β-glucan solubilized in the intestine (C). Objectives: Our 2 primary objectives were to determine whether consumption of 3 g high-MW oat β-glucan/d would reduce LDL cholesterol and whether LDL cholesterol lowering was related to the log(MW x C) of oat β-glucan. Design: In a double-blind, parallel-design, multicenter clinical trial, subjects with LDL cholesterol ≥3.0 and ≤5.0 mmol/L (n = 786 screened, n = 400 ineligible, n = 19 refused, n = 367 enrolled, and n = 345 completed) were randomly assigned to receive cereal containing wheat fiber (n = 87) or 3 g high-MW (2,210,000 g/mol, n = 86), 4 g medium-MW (850,000 g/mol, n = 67), 3 g medium-MW (530,000 g/mol, n = 64), or 4 g low-MW (210,000 g/mol, n = 63) oat β-glucan/d (divided doses, twice daily) for 4 wk. Results: LDL cholesterol was significantly less with 3 g high-MW, 4 g medium-MW, and 3 g medium-MW oat β-glucan cereals than with the wheat-fiber cereal by 0.21 (5.5%; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.30; P = 0.002), 0.26 (6.5%; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.37; P = 0.0007), and 0.19 (4.7%; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.30; P = 0.01) mmol/L, respectively. However, the effect of 4 g low-MW oat β-glucan/d (0.10 mmol/L) was not significant (2.3%; 95% CI: 0.02, -0.20). By analysis of covariance, log(MW x C) was a significant determinant of LDL cholesterol (P = 0.003). Treatment effects were not significantly influenced by age, sex, study center, or baseline LDL cholesterol. Conclusions: The physicochemical properties of oat β-glucan should be considered when assessing the cholesterol-lowering ability of oat-containing products; an extruded breakfast cereal containing 3 g oat β-glucan/d with a high-MW (2,210,000 g/mol) or a medium-MW (530,000 g/mol) lowered LDL cholesterol similarly by ≈0.2 mmol/L (5%), but efficacy was reduced by 50% when MW was reduced to 210,000 g/mol. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00981981. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Flanagan S.,Reading Scientific Services Ltd
Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Simon Flanagan discusses some of the practical risk assessment tools that can help food manufacturers to manage allergens. Risk assessment forms the basis of the best, practical, and most useful approach to allergen management. This approach is a requirement of all the international standards that have received approval from the Global Food Safety Initiative. Reading Scientific Services Ltd (RSSL) has developed its own risk assessment toolkit, which is an evolution of existing best practice guidance and has proved extremely useful in evaluating the premises and practices of a diverse range of food manufacturing companies. The approach provides documented evidence in support of sensible labeling statements and is the precursor to developing a consistent approach to allergen management and improving ingredient sourcing and handling across a company.


Payne G.,Reading Scientific Services Ltd | Lad M.,Riddet Institute | Foster T.,University of Nottingham | Khosla A.,University of Nottingham | Gray D.,University of Nottingham
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2014

Neutral-lipids within oilseeds are most commonly stored in oil bodies, small spherical organelles with oleosin proteins inserted through a phospholipid monolayer. Oil bodies extracted from Echium plantagineum are highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are stable to coalescence and oxidation. This stability has been attributed to the strong association between the phospholipid monolayer and oleosin proteins. To better understand this association the phospholipid fatty acyl groups of E. Plantagineum oil bodies were determined for the first time; a large proportion (≈70%) of saturated fatty acids were present, and this may aid in oleosin anchorage and thus contributes to oil body stability. The effect of oil body washing on surface charge was also observed (using turbidity, zeta and streaming potentials), and dependent on the washing protocol, E. Plantagineum oil bodies had an isoelectric point of pH 4-5. This is significantly different to pI values for oil bodies from a range of other seeds reported in the literature using isoelectric focusing; a possible explanation for this discrepancy is discussed. © 2014.


Djokic-Gallagher J.,Dermal Laboratories Ltd | Rosher P.,Dermal Laboratories Ltd | Walker J.,Dermal Laboratories Ltd | Sykes K.,Dermal Laboratories Ltd | Hart V.,Reading Scientific Services Ltd
Journal of Dermatological Treatment | Year: 2016

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the moisturising efficacy and acceptability of physical characteristics of two commonly prescribed emollients licenced in the UK, Doublebase Dayleve gel (DELP) and Diprobase cream (DIPC). Methods: The study was a double-blind, concurrent bi-lateral comparison in female eczema subjects with dry skin. Results: In Part 1, comparing the area under the curve (AUC) change from baseline corneometer readings over 24 h following single applications of the emollients to the volar forearms of 34 subjects, the AUC for DELP was more than three times that seen for DIPC (p < 0.0001). In Part 2, comparing the same outcome measured over 5 days of twice daily applications to the lower legs in 36 subjects, the AUC for DELP was approximately five times that for DIPC (p < 0.0001). 69% of subjects “Like Slightly” or “Like Strongly” DELP compared to 33% for DIPC (p = 0.025). 72% indicated they would use DELP again compared to 33% for DIPC (p = 0.033). 75% of subjects preferred DELP, 17% preferred DIPC and 8% expressed no preference (p = 0.0004). © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | a Dermal Laboratories Ltd and Reading Scientific Services Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of dermatological treatment | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to compare the moisturising efficacy and acceptability of physical characteristics of two commonly prescribed emollients licenced in the UK, Doublebase Dayleve gel (DELP) and Diprobase cream (DIPC).The study was a double-blind, concurrent bi-lateral comparison in female eczema subjects with dry skin.In Part 1, comparing the area under the curve (AUC) change from baseline corneometer readings over 24 h following single applications of the emollients to the volar forearms of 34 subjects, the AUC for DELP was more than three times that seen for DIPC (p<0.0001). In Part 2, comparing the same outcome measured over 5 days of twice daily applications to the lower legs in 36 subjects, the AUC for DELP was approximately five times that for DIPC (p<0.0001). 69% of subjects Like Slightly or Like Strongly DELP compared to 33% for DIPC (p=0.025). 72% indicated they would use DELP again compared to 33% for DIPC (p=0.033). 75% of subjects preferred DELP, 17% preferred DIPC and 8% expressed no preference (p=0.0004).

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