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Nijmegen, Netherlands

Shogenova A.,Tallinn University of Technology | Piessens K.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Ivask J.,Tallinn University of Technology | Shogenov K.,Tallinn University of Technology | And 10 more authors.
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013

The EU CCS Directive transposition process and related issues in 26 European countries, comprising 24 EU member states, Norway and Croatia were studied in the EU FP7 projcct: "CGS Europe" in 2011-2012. By the end of 2011 the transposition of the Directive into national law had been approved by the European Commission (EC) in Spam only, but had been approved at national/jurisdictional level in 12 other countries (Austria, Denmark, Estonia, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Slovakia and Sweden) and two regions of Belgium. By January 2012, the European Commission had assessed and approved national submissions of CCS legal acts transposmg the Directive in Denmark, France, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, the Netherlands and Slovenia. Implementation in the UK was completed in February 2012 and by end March 2012, implementation at national level was also complete in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Portugal and Romania. Belgium, Croatia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway and Poland had not finished the transposition of the CCS Directive by end March 2012. The process had been complicated by ongoing political debates in Norway, public opposition m Germany and ministerial elections in Poland. More than 20 operating, developing and planned CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been identified in nine European countries. Storage capacity was estimated by CGS Europe project partners as "sufficient at national level" in 17 countries.

Harpenslager S.F.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Lamers L.P.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van der Heide T.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Roelofs J.G.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 2 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2016

Dense mats of floating vegetation form complex structures that support high biodiversity in wetlands. Since the 1960s, however, high-density stands of Stratiotes aloides have shown strong declines throughout Europe and restoration efforts have often failed, both of which have been linked to high nitrogen (N) input rates. The low success rate of reintroduction is striking, since seemingly healthy, high-density stands are observed to grow under similar environmental conditions. We therefore hypothesise that N tolerance of S. aloides increases with density due to joint N uptake and detoxification. To test our hypothesis, we set up a controlled full factorial mesocosm experiment in which we manipulated N loading and S. aloides density, and investigated interacting effects on habitat biogeochemistry and plant performance. High-density S. aloides stands strongly lowered ammonium availability through shared uptake, even at extremely high N loads. Furthermore, dense stands strongly reduced water layer oxygen concentrations, which stimulated sediment phosphorus mobilisation, and increased carbon dioxide concentrations, which enhanced underwater photosynthesis. High-density stands thus not only detoxify ammonium, but also facilitate population growth through habitat manipulation. Combined, these mechanisms enabled S. aloides to remain viable at high loads of 800kgNha-1y-1, whereas low-density stands already collapsed at 200kgNha-1y-1. Overall, our results show that under similar environmental conditions, high-density stands can thrive, while restoration or natural recruitment by a low number of individuals may be impossible. We therefore conclude that acknowledging and harnessing intraspecific facilitation can be vital for successful conservation and restoration. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Limpens J.,Wageningen University | Granath G.,Uppsala University | Aerts R.,University of Amsterdam | Heijmans M.M.P.D.,Wageningen University | And 31 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2012

• Peat bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem today. Most of this C is associated with peat moss (Sphagnum) litter. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can decrease Sphagnum production, compromising the C sequestration capacity of peat bogs. The mechanisms underlying the reduced production are uncertain, necessitating multifactorial experiments. • We investigated whether glasshouse experiments are reliable proxies for field experiments for assessing interactions between N deposition and environment as controls on Sphagnum N concentration and production. We performed a meta-analysis over 115 glasshouse experiments and 107 field experiments. • We found that glasshouse and field experiments gave similar qualitative and quantitative estimates of changes in Sphagnum N concentration in response to N application. However, glasshouse-based estimates of changes in production - even qualitative assessments - diverged from field experiments owing to a stronger N effect on production response in absence of vascular plants in the glasshouse, and a weaker N effect on production response in presence of vascular plants compared to field experiments. • Thus, although we need glasshouse experiments to study how interacting environmental factors affect the response of Sphagnum to increased N deposition, we need field experiments to properly quantify these effects. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

Harpenslager S.F.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Smolders A.J.P.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Smolders A.J.P.,re Research Center | Kieskamp A.A.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Structural diversity formed by dense, floating Stratiotes aloides stands, generates hotspots of biodiversity of flora and fauna in wetlands. However, only part of the populations become emergent and provide this important facilitation. Since it has been hypothesised that its buoyancy depends on the rates of underwater photosynthesis, we investigated the role of dissolved CO2 availability and PAR on photosynthesis, biomass production and buoyancy in a controlled greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and growth were strongly influenced by both PAR and CO2 availability. At low PAR, plants formed less biomass and produced no emergent leaves, even when CO2 was abundant. At low CO2 levels, S. aloides switched to HCO3- use, resulting in a lower photosynthetic O2 production, decreased emergent leaf formation and increased CaCO3 precipitation on its leaves, all of which impaired buoyancy. At high PAR, low CO2 availability resulted in slower colonisation of the water layer, whereas CO2 availability did not influence PAR-limited plants. Our study shows that site conditions, rather than the sole abundance of potentially facilitating species, may strongly determine whether or not they form the structure necessary to act as a facilitator for biodiversity in aquatic environments. © 2015 Harpenslager et al.

Wong J.,Kingston General Hospital | Shah P.S.,Mount Sinai Hospital | Yoon E.W.,re Research Center | Yee W.,University of Calgary | And 2 more authors.
American journal of perinatology | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To compare neonatal outcomes between infants who received inotropes and those who did not, and identify variation in inotrope use.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of data from neonates < 29 weeks gestation collected by the Canadian Neonatal Network during 2003 to 2010. After controlling for confounders and maternal/infant characteristics, rates of mortality and major morbidity were compared between those who received inotropes on days 1 and 3 of admission and those who did not. Rate of inotrope use was compared between sites.RESULTS: Inotropes were administered to 772 (10%) of the 7,913 neonates. Infants who received inotropes had significantly higher illness severity, surfactant use, and need for mechanical ventilation. Inotrope use was also associated with significantly higher rates of mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05 [1.64, 2.57]), retinopathy of prematurity (AOR = 2.04 [1.54, 2.71]), intraventricular hemorrhage (AOR = 1.59 [1.29, 1.93]), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (AOR = 1.38 [1.11, 1.72]), and necrotizing enterocolitis (AOR = 2.06 [1.59, 2.67]). Rates of inotrope use varied significantly between participating sites (0-36%; AOR = 0 [0, 0.1]-7.7 [2.9, 21]).CONCLUSION: Risk of mortality and major morbidities were significantly higher in neonates who received inotropes. Inotrope use varied significantly among Canadian neonatal intensive care units. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

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