Madhya Pradesh, India
Madhya Pradesh, India

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Sabde Y.D.,Rdgardi Medical College | Diwan V.,Rdgardi Medical College | Diwan V.,Karolinska Institutet | Saraf V.S.,National Center for Human Settlement and Environment | And 3 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2011

Background: In India, private pharmacies are ubiquitous yet critical establishments that facilitate community access to medicines. These are often the first points of treatment seeking in parts of India and other low income settings around the world. The characteristics of these pharmacies including their location, drug availability, human resources and infrastructure have not been studied before. Given the ubiquity and popularity of private pharmacies in India, such information would be useful to harness the potential of these pharmacies to deliver desirable public health outcomes, to facilitate regulation and to involve in initiatives pertaining to rational drug use. This study was a cross sectional survey that mapped private pharmacies in one district on a geographic information system and described relevant characteristics of these units. Methods. This study of pharmacies was a part of larger cross sectional survey carried out to map all the health care providers in Ujjain district (population 1.9 million), Central India, on a geographic information system. Their location vis - vis formal providers of health services were studied. Other characteristics like human resources, infrastructure, clients and availability of tracer drugs were also surveyed. Results: A total 475 private pharmacies were identified in the district. Three-quarter were in urban areas, where they were concentrated around physician practices. In rural areas, pharmacies were located along the main roads. A majority of pharmacies simultaneously retailed medicines from multiple systems of medicine. Tracer parenteral antibiotics and injectable steroids were available in 83.7% and 88.7% pharmacies respectively. The proportion of clients without prescription was 39.04%. Only 11.58% of staff had formal pharmacist qualifications. Power outages were a significant challenge. Conclusion: This is the first mapping of pharmacies & their characteristics in India. It provides evidence of the urban dominance and close relationship between healthcare provider location and pharmacy location. The implications of this relationship are discussed. The study reports a lack of qualified staff in the presence of a high proportion of clients attending without a prescription. The study highlights the need for the better implementation of regulation. Besides facilitating regulation & partnerships, the data also provides a sampling frame for future interventional studies on these pharmacies. © 2011 Sabde et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Marothi Y.,Rdgardi Medical College | Singh B.,Rdgardi Medical College
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in hospitals at Ujjain. A total of 5990 samples were collected in five years: 3580 from Ujjain Charitable Trust Hospital (Urban population) and 2410 from R. D. Gardi Medical College (Rural population). Overall prevalence rate of intestinal parasite was 21.4%. Entamoeba histolytica (10.5%) was the commonest protozoa followed by Giardia lamblia (3.9%). Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides (2.8%) was the commonest. Multiple infections were seen in 70 samples. There was difference in prevalence between urban (20.2%) and rural (23.1%) population. Females (27.4%) were more affected than males (18.2%) and age group 0 to 10 years old had the highest rate of infection. The results indicate that there is a need to implement control measures in form of regular deworming, health education and provision of safe water supply. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Gehlot P.S.,Rdgardi Medical College | Chaturvedi S.,Rdgardi Medical College | Kashyap R.,Rdgardi Medical College | Singh V.,Rdgardi Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: Tuberculosis is the commonest of the infections world wide and it can affect almost any part of the body, most commonly the thorax. The spine is affected in 50% of the cases of skeletal tuberculosis. A tuberculous infection of the spine causes a bony destruction and collapse of the vertebrae, with a gibbus deformity, skip lesions, an intervertebral disc involvement, an epidural abscess, a paravertebral abscess and oedema in the soft tissue planes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most valuable investigation in the patients with spinal tuberculosis, as it can clearly demonstrate all of the above findings. Methods: In this study, the MRI scans of 70 known cases of tuberculosis of the spine, which were done in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, R.D.Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India, were retrospectively analyzed, to determine the pattern of occurrence of various pathological lesions. Results: It was found in this study, that Pott's spine was most commonly observed in the 21-50 years age group, with a male predominance. The dorsal and the lumbar vertebrae are commonly involved and multiple vertebrae were often affected, the L3 vertebra being the commonest. An intervertebral discinvolvement and pre and paravertebral collections were commonly seen, with an epidural collection occurring in more than 75% of the cases. Cord oedema was noted in 10% of the cases. Conclusion: The MRI scan is highly sensitive in the detection of various pathological processes of Pott's spine and the patterns of occurrence of these findings were analyzed in this study. Since the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis are dependent on various epidemiologically sensitive parameters, this study can provide a benchmark, against which the results of studies which will be done in the future can be compared.

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