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Wongtiem P.,Rayong Field Crops Research Center | Courtois D.,Nestlé | Florin B.,Nestlé | Juchaux M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

In 2005, the Rayong-FCRC released a new high-yielding cassava cultivar designated Rayong 9 (R9) for ethanol production. However, the rate of distribution to farmers has been limited by the traditional vegetative propagation method of this crop which does not always satisfy the needs in planting material. The objective was to improve secondary somatic embryogenesis of the cassava clone Rayong 9 (R9) selected in Thailand by the Rayong Field Crops Research Center (Rayong-FCRC) for its suitability to produce ethanol. Fragments of cotyledon-stage somatic embryos were subcultured onto MS medium supplemented with the auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at 4 mg/l in sight of inducing secondary somatic embryogenesis. Five different cytokinins, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin, zeatin, isopentenyladenine (2-iP) and adenine were added at 1 mg/l to the induction and maturation media to test their efficiency. Onto cytokinin-free media, 70 to 80% of explants produced embryoids, each explant giving 2 to 4 new embryoids within 7 weeks. The conversion rate of the embryoids into plantlets ranged from 11 to 26% depending on the type of cytokinin. With the exception of adenine, the other cytokinins inhibited the intensity of somatic embryogenesis, by 75% in the case of zeatin and 30% in the case of kinetin. Addition of adenine did not significantly improve the number of embryoids per explant. However, at 10, 20 and 40 mg/l adenine tended to improve the process relatively to embryoid sizes and plantlet survival rates in the greenhouse. © 2011 Academic Journals.


SRAPHET S.,Mahidol University | BOONCHANAWIWAT A.,Mahidol University | THANYASIRIWAT T.,Mahidol University | THANYASIRIWAT T.,Kasetsart University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root yield measured as fresh weight (hereafter root yield) is declining in much of Asia and Africa. The current study aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying both root and starch fresh weights in F 1 cassava. Eight QTL were associated with root yield, underlying 12·9–40·0% of the phenotypic variation (PVE). Nine QTL were associated with starch content, underlying 11·3–27·3% of the PVE. Quantitative trait loci were identified from four different environments that encompassed two locations and 3 years. Consistent QTL for root yield, YLD5_R11 and YLD8_L09 on linkage group (LG) 16, were detected across years and locations. Quantitative trait loci for starch content, ST3_R09, ST6_R10 and ST7_R11 on LG 11, were found across 3 years. Co-localization of QTL for both traits with positive correlation was detected between YLD3_R10 and ST5_R10 on LG 9. Candidate genes within the QTL that were consistent across multiple environments were identified based on cassava genome sequences. Genes predicted to encode for glycosyl hydrolases, uridine 5’-diphospho-(UDP)-glucuronosyl transferases and UDP-glucosyl transferases were found among the 44 genes located within the region containing the QTL controlling starch content. Sixteen genes predicted to encode proteins that were possibly associated with root yield were identified. The QTL controlling root yield and starch content in the current study will be useful for molecular breeding of cassava through marker-assisted selection. The identification of candidate genes underlying both traits will be useful both as markers and for gene expression studies. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016


Charoenkul N.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi | Charoenkul N.,Kagoshima University | Uttapap D.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi | Pathipanawat W.,Rayong Field Crops Research Center | Takeda Y.,Kagoshima University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Starches and flours from 12 cassava varieties having differences in cooked root texture - mealy, firm and mealy & firm - were investigated, with a particular focus on aspects of physicochemical characteristics. It was found that chemical composition (protein, lipid, fiber, ash), pasting properties, firmness of gel, thermal properties, morphology and granular size distribution and crystalline pattern of starches from the 12 varieties were not significantly different. On the contrary, cassava flours which consisted of both starch and non-starch components exhibited wider variations in these properties, especially pasting properties and firmness of gel, than the starches. All flour samples had lower paste viscosities than their corresponding starches. Pasting temperatures of flours were in a range of 70-74 °C, which was higher than those of starches (67-70 °C). Fluctuation in the values of pasting parameters of flours among the varieties was associated with the variations in the chemical composition and α-amylase activity, i.e. paste viscosity and setback were positively correlated to starch content and negatively correlated to α-amylase activity, while protein, lipid and fiber did not show correlation with pasting parameters. Cassava starches from all varieties, except the F-18 variety, had higher firmness of gels than their corresponding flours. Firmness values (except the F-18 variety) of starches were in a range of 149-207 g, whereas those of flours were 75-163 g. Firmness of flour gels was negatively correlated to lipid and fiber content, while strong positive correlation was found with the amylase activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Rayong Field Crops Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2016

Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asias main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 272% and 162%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 322%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asias cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asias key agricultural commodities. 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Thanyasiriwat T.,Mahidol University | Sraphet S.,Mahidol University | Whankaew S.,Mahidol University | Boonseng O.,Rayong Field Crops Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.


PubMed | Mahidol University, Zhejiang University, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology and Rayong Field Crops Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) | Year: 2015

Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits.


Thaikert R.,Mahidol University | Sraphet S.,Mahidol University | Boonchanawiwat A.,Mahidol University | Boonseng O.,Rayong Field Crops Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2015

Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD), caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis infection, is a major disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The objective of this study was to identify proteins differentially regulated in resistant (‘Huaybong 60’) and susceptible (‘Hanatee’) cultivars in response to C. gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis infection. Total proteins were extracted and resolved via 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified in ‘Huaybong 60’, of which eight were up-regulated and seven down-regulated. In ‘Hanatee’, seven proteins were identified, of which one was up-regulated and six were down-regulated. Proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism were down-regulated, whereas reactive oxygen species-generating and cyanogenic pathways were up-regulated in the resistant cultivar. This study provided new insights into the mechanisms underlying pathogen resistance in cassava and suggested that pathogen resistance might arise from an integrated mechanism that arises from only a few initiating events. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Boonchanawiwat A.,Mahidol University | Sraphet S.,Mahidol University | Boonseng O.,Rayong Field Crops Research Center | Lightfoot D.A.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Triwitayakorn K.,Mahidol University
Field Crops Research | Year: 2011

Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz subsp. Esculenta was a major food crop across Asia and Africa. The crop was a highly heterozygous perennial woody shrub cultivated from stem cuttings. Cassava improvement for starchy tuberous roots requires about 5-6 years from F1 hybrid seed germination to the selection of superior genotypes. Early selection with DNA markers could increase the number of elite genotypes identified. The aim here was to identify DNA markers associated with loci underlying plant and first branch height. In this study, 640 SSR primer pairs were used to screen for polymorphisms in two parental lines, cv. 'Huaybong60' (female) and cv. 'Hanatee' (male). There were 235 informative polymorphic markers used to genotype 100 individuals of an F1 mapping population. Genotype data was analyzed by JoinMap® version 3.0 software in order to construct a genetic linkage map. The map consisted of 156 linked SSR markers distributed across 25 linkage groups. The total length of the map was 845.2cM (Kosambi cM) with 6.2 loci per linkage group, and an average distance between markers of 7.9cM. Plant and first branch height of stem cuttings from the F1 mapping population were collected from individual lines planted in 2007-2009. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) underlying these traits were identified using mapQTL®/version 4.0. A total of seven QTL placed on four linkage groups were found for plant height. Of these, one major QTL was discovered on linkage group 2 near the marker SSRY155 with 17.9% of phenotypic variation explained (PVE). For first branch height, five QTL located on five linkage groups were identified. The two major QTL were located on linkage groups 2, and 20 at the loci SSRY323 and SSRY236 with 23.5% and 22.6% PVE, respectively. The QTL for plant and first branch height will serve as useful molecular markers in a cassava breeding program and may allow identification of the underlying genes in future. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


BOONCHANAWIWAT A.,Mahidol University | SRAPHET S.,Mahidol University | WHANKAEW S.,Mahidol University | BOONSENG O.,Rayong Field Crops Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an economically important root crop in Thailand, which is ranked the world's top cassava exporting country. Production of cassava can be hampered by several pathogens and pests. Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) is an important disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis. The pathogen causes severe stem damage resulting in yield reductions and lack of stem cuttings available for planting. Molecular studies of cassava response to CAD will provide useful information for cassava breeders to develop new varieties with resistance to the disease. The current study aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and DNA markers associated with resistance to CAD. A total of 200 lines of two F1 mapping populations were generated by reciprocal crosses between the varieties Huabong60 and Hanatee. The F1 samples were genotyped based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) and expressed sequence tag-SSR markers and a genetic linkage map was constructed using the JoinMap®/version3·0 program. The results showed that the map consisted of 512 marker loci distributed on 24 linkage groups with a map length of 1771·9 centimorgan (cM) and a mean interval between markers of 5·7 cM. The genetic linkage map was integrated with phenotypic data for the response to CAD infection generated by a detached leaf assay test. A total of three QTL underlying the trait were identified on three linkage groups using the MapQTL®/version4·0 program. Those DNA markers linked to the QTL that showed high statistically significant values with the CAD resistance trait were identified for gene annotation analysis and 23 candidate resistance genes to CAD infection were identified. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015

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