Lal Bahadur Nagar, India
Lal Bahadur Nagar, India

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Muthuraman A.,Punjabi University | Muthuraman A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Ramesh M.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Sood S.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Aims: Ischemia -reperfusion (I/R) event in vascular and nervous system has been documented to rising ischemic and vasculitic neuropathic pain, clinically resembles the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The present study evaluated the effect of montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (Cys-LTC 4 and Cys-LTD 4) antagonist on ischemia -reperfusion (I/R) induced vasculitic neuropathic pain in rats. Main Methods: Behavioral parameters were assessed at different time intervals (i.e. 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21st day) and biochemical analysis in sciatic nerve tissue samples were also performed along with histopathological studies. Key Findings: Behavioral pain assessment has shown increase in paw and tail withdrawal threshold in montelukast treated groups against thermal and mechanical stimuli as compared to I/R control group. We observed a decrease in the total calcium, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity levels, whereas there is rise in reduced glutathione level in montelukast treated groups as compared to I/R control group. However, significant behavioral and biochemical results were observed only in medium and high dose of treated groups which were comparable to normal control group. Moreover, histopathological study has revealed the reduction of I/R induced neuronal edema and axonal degeneration due to montelukast. Significance: Montelukast has ameliorated I/R induced vasculitic neuropathic pain, these effects may be due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reduction of oxidative stress, release of inflammatory mediators and neuroprotective actions. Hence, it could be used as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of vasculitic inflammation related neuropathic pain. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Muthuraman A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Muthuraman A.,Punjabi University | Sood S.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Singla S.K.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Inflammopharmacology | Year: 2011

Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The carrageenan induced acute inflammation was assessed by measuring rat paw volume at different time of intervals. Further, cotton pellet induced chronic inflammation was assessed by granulomatous tissue mass estimation along with the estimation of tissue biomarker changes (i.e. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and plasma extravasation). The results indicated that in both acute and chronic inflammation, FPEO and BPEO show reduction in the inflammation, but significant effects was observed only at high doses of both fractions which was comparable to diclofenac treated group. In conclusion, phenolic compounds of E. officinalis may serve as potential herbal candidate for amelioration of acute and chronic inflammation due to their modulatory action of free radicals. © 2010 The Author(s).


Aggarwal A.K.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Gupta M.,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2012

Objective: The aim of the present study was to prepare the amino acid prodrugs of bromhexine hydrochloride to improve its solubility. Methods: All the prodrugs were synthesized by first reacting bromhexine with tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) protected amino acid and then deprotection was carried out by using trifluoroacetic acid. These prodrugs were characterized by their melting points, NMR, mass and FTIR spectroscopy. Solubility and partition coefficient of bromhexine and various prodrugs were determined. The solution stability of various prodrugs was also determined in various buffers of pH ranging from 2 to 10. Degradation rate constants and half-life were also determined at various pH. Results and discussion: The structures of all the synthesized prodrugs were confirmed by NMR, mass and FTIR spectra. The prodrug 2-N-l-alanyl-bromhexine hydrochloride showed maximum solubility and minimum partition coefficient value. These prodrugs may hydrolyze by one or more mechanisms. The order of decreasing rates of hydrolysis was 2-N-l-prolyl-bromhexine hydrochloride > 2-N-glycyl-bromhexine hydrochloride > 2-N-l-alanyl-bromhexine hydrochloride. All the prodrugs exhibited maximum stability in the acidic pH range and undergo base catalyzed hydrolysis. Conclusion: Solubility studies and partition coefficient values indicated that the synthesized prodrug, 2-N-l-alanyl- bromhexine hydrochloride, was least lipophilic as compared to other synthesized prodrugs. Solution stability studies showed that this prodrug undergo minimum hydrolysis at 37°C. So, it is concluded that 2-N-l-alanyl-bromhexine hydrochloride exhibits better solubility and stability as compared to other synthesized prodrugs. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Muthuraman A.,Rayat institute of pharmacy | Sood S.,Rayat institute of pharmacy
Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury | Year: 2010

Background: Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is common in various pathological conditions like diabetic complication, rheumatic arthritis, necrotizing vascular occlusive disease and trauma.Methods: We have evaluated the effect of tacrolimus (1, 2 and 3 mg/kg, p.o. for 10 consecutive days) on femoral arterial ischemic reperfusion (I/R) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Behavioral parameters (i.e. hot plate, radiant heat, acetone drop, tail heat hyperalgesia, tail flick and tail cold allodynia tests) were assessed at different time intervals (i.e. 0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16thday) and biochemical analysis in serum and tissue samples were also performed along with histopathological studies.Results: Behavioral pain assessment revealed increase in the paw and tail withdrawal threshold in tacrolimus treated groups against hyperalgesic and allodynic stimuli as compared to the sham control group. We observed a decrease in the serum nitrate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels along with reduction in tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) and total calcium levels, whereas, rise in tissue reduced glutathione levels in tacrolimus treated groups. However, significant results were obtained in medium and high dose treated group as compared to sham control group. Histopathological study had revealed the increase in the neuronal edema and axonal degeneration in the I/R group whereas, tacrolimus ameliorate these effects.Conclusion: Our results indicate the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and calcium modulatory actions of tacrolimus. Therefore, it can be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of vascular inflammatory related neuropathic pain. © 2010 Muthuraman and Sood; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sharma N.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Bafna P.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2012

In the present study, the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon (AECD) Pers. (Graminae) was evaluated for anti-parkinson's activity in rats. The anti-parkinson's effect of AECD was studied against rotenone (2 mg/kg, s. c.) - induced parkinsons in rats. In this study, chronic administration of rotenone in rats (28 days) produced motor dysfunctions like catalepsy and muscle rigidity along with a reduction in locomotor activity. Rotenone administration was also found to generate oxidative stress in the brain as evident from an increase in the level of TBARS and decrease in the levels of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with AECD resulted in a significant (p <0.001) decrease in catalepsy and muscle rigidity along with a significant (p <0.001) increase in locomotion as compared to the rotenone-treated control group. AECD treated rats also showed a reduction in the TBARS level and an increase in the GSH, SOD and CAT levels; thus reducing the oxidative stress in the brain of animals. The study thus proved that Cynodon dactylon treatment significantly attenuated the motor defects and also protected the brain from oxidative stress, both induced by rotenone. These results strongly indicate the possible therapeutic potential of Cynodon dactylon as an antioxidant in Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. © 2012 Institute of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University.


Muthuraman A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Sood S.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2010

In the present study, we tried to explore the mechanism of montelukast as an antiulcerogenic agent in pyloric ligation (PL) and water immersion stress (WIS) induced peptic ulcer. The ameliorative effects of montelukast (5, 10, and 20. mg/kg, p.o.) on gastric volume and total acidity were studied in PL model. We have investigated the alteration in the ulcerative index, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, activity of myeloperoxidase, and total calcium level in both models. Estimation of DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis was also performed. Medium and higher doses of montelukast showed significant (. p<0.05) ameliorative potential on all the above parameters as compared with omeprazole treated group. DNA fragmentation pattern clearly indicated the antiapoptotic effect of montelukast in preventing mucosal erosion in both models. Hence, the gastroprotective effect of montelukast may be attributed to its antisecretory, antioxidative along with its antiapoptotic effect. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Pandit A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Sachdeva T.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Bafna P.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2012

Liver is the principle organ for maintaining the body's internal environment. There is currently no way to reimburse for the absence of liver function. Its major influence is on the flow of nutrients and controls the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fats. Drugs are an important cause of liver injury. More than 900 drugs, toxins, and herbs have been reported to cause liver injury. Approximately 75% of the idiosyncratic drug reactions result in liver transplantation or death. Various types of drug induced liver diseases are acute-dose dependent liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, active chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver tumors etc. In the United States, approximately 2000 cases of acute liver failure occur annually and drugs account for over 50% of them (37% are due to acetaminophen, 13% are idiosyncratic reactions due to other medications). Drugs account for 2-5% of cases of patients hospitalized with jaundice and approximately 10% of all cases of acute hepatitis. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis account for some 2% of mean in 17 countries with nearly 40,000 deaths per year. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review throws light on various drugs which induce hepatotoxicity, with their mechanism of liver damage and clinical scenario.


Singh J.N.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Sunil K.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Rana A.C.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2013

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare fruits (family: umbelifereae), popularly known as fennel, on depression using force swim test in rats, potentiation of norepinephrine toxicity in mice and haloperidol induce catalepsy in mice. The extract of F. vulgare (250 and 500 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats used in FST and 500mg/kg was administered in HIC and same dose administered in NE toxicity in mice. The dose of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg of extract significantly (p<0.001) reduced the immobility times in rats but dose of 500 mg/kg showed more potent effect than imipramine (30mg/kg). So this dose was used in HIC and NE toxicity in mice. But in NE toxicity model it was observed that MEFV is not good adrenergic component. A significant (p<0.001) reduction in the duration of catalepsy was observed in the MEFV treated group and Fluoxetine group as compared to the haloperidol treated group. In HIC, mice were sacrificed on the seventh day and TBARS, glutathione, nitrite activities were estimated. Monoamine oxidase inhibiting effect and anti-oxidant effect of Foeniculum vulgare may be contributing favorably to the antidepressant-like activity. Thus, it is concluded that Foeniculum vulgare extract may possess an antidepressantlike effect. © 2013 Jamwal Neetu Singh et al.


Vij T.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Prashar Y.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a popular and important fruit tree in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The fruit is consumed worldwide as fresh fruit and vegetable or used as processed product. The fruit is healthy and delicious and the whole plant parts including fruit, root, bark, peel, seeds and pulp are also known to have medicinal properties. The many benefits of papaya are owed due to high content of vitamin A, B and C, proteolytic enzymes like papain and chymopapain which have antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties. During the last few years, major insight has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal application of papaya and now it is considered a valuable neutraceutical fruit plant. In the present review, nutritional value of the fruit and medicinal properties of its various parts have been discussed to provide collective information on this multipurpose commercial fruit crop. © 2015 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Kaur M.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Kaur A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy | Sharma R.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2012

Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) belongs to the family Cactaceae. Family Cactaceae is reported to contain about 130 genera and nearly 1500 species. This plant is native of Mexico and it is widely distributed in Mexico and in all American hemispheres as well as in Africa and in the Mediterranean basin. It has been used in traditional folk medicine because of its role in treating a number of diseases and conditions, including anti-inflammatory effects hypoglycemic effects inhibition of stomach ulceration, neuroprotective effects Through antioxidant actions and also used for treating diabetes, burns, bronchial, asthma and indigestion in many countries over the world. It is also used in Pharma industry as a pharmaceutical agent. The fruit, as well as cactus stem are used to prepare value-added products, such as jam, squash, wine, pickle, body lotions, shampoo, creams, etc. It also has several medicinal and industrial uses. Its seeds can be used as flavouring agents. Due to the remarkable biological activity of Opuntia and its constituents, it will be appropriate to develop them as a medicine.

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