Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Muthuraman A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Ramesh M.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research |
Sood S.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Neuroscience Methods | Year: 2010
Ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) is common in various pathological conditions like diabetic complication, complex regional pain syndrome type II (CRPS II), necrotizing vascular occlusive disease and trauma. We have developed an animal model of ischemic-reperfusion injury induced nociceptive sensory neuropathy in rats. The model was validated after 2, 4 and 6 h of ischemia followed by prolonged reperfusion. The sensory behavioral assessment revealed thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in paw and in tail which expressed the peripheral and central neuropathic pain respectively. We observed a decrease in the serum IL-10 and nerve conduction velocity and increase in the serum nitrate, malondialdehyde (MDA) and TNF-α levels in the 4 and 6 h I/R groups in biochemical and electrophysiological evaluations. Histopathological study had revealed the decrease in nerve fiber density in the moderate and severe I/R groups. We selected the moderate (4 h) ischemic-reperfusion injury as beneficial model because of the good correlation with clinical status for the development of neuropathy in human associated with severe pain disorders. This model can be used to explore pathophysiological mechanisms implied in the genesis of neuropathic pain and also to evaluate the new analgesic agents, peripheral neuro-vasoactive substances and neuroprotective drugs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aggarwal A.K.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Jindal P.,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation | Year: 2014
The aim of present study was to study the interaction of terbinafine hydrochloride with nicotinamide in solution as well as solid state. Solid dispersions of terbinafine hydrochloride were prepared by fusion method using nicotinamide as carrier in different ratios. Phase solubility studies were carried out at three different temperatures and thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy change (ΔS) and free energy change (ΔG) were calculated. These formulations were further characterized in the solid state by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Solubility and dissolution studies showed that nicotinamide increases the solubility and dissolution rate of terbinafine hydrochloride. Thermodynamic parameters and solid state studies confirmed the absence of any chemical interactions between terbinafine hydrochloride and nicotinamide. It is concluded that the mechanism for increase in solubility of terbinafine hydrochloride by nicotinamide is the water breaking properties of nicotinamide. © 2013 The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology.
Sandhua K.S.,Laboratory of Pharmacology |
Cranab A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013
The present study was carried out to evaluate Anti Parkinson's Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Nigella sativa seeds (EENS) in Chlorpromazine (CPZ) induced experimental animal model. The effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) was studied using in-vivo parameter like catalepsy. Alongwith iteffect of EENS on Neurochemical parameters (TBARS, GSH, Nitrite and Total Protein) were also assessed. Catalepsy was measured using block method. For neurochemical estimations all groups were given CPZ dosing for 21 days to induce Parkinson's Disease (PD). The cataleptic scores was significantly (P<0.001) found to be reduced, with the Nigella sativa (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.). Levodopa + Carbidopa and Nigella sativa increase the depleted level of Reduced Glutathione (GSH) (P<0.001) and Total Protein (P<0.001) and decrease the elevated levels of TBARS (P<0.001) and Nitrite (P<0.001) preferably at higher dose(400 mg/kg) as compared to group II receiving Chlorpromazine. Our results suggest the Anti Parkinson's activity of Nigella Sativa due to its Anti Cataleptic and Neurochemical responses.
Goyal U.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Arora R.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy |
Aggarwal G.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy
Acta Pharmaceutica | Year: 2012
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) of lovastatin was aimed at overcoming the problems of poor solubility and bioavailability. The formulation strategy included selection of oil phase based on saturated solubility studies and surfactant and co-surfactant screening on the basis of their emulsification ability. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the self-emulsifying region. Capryol 90 (20 %) as oil, Cremophore RH40 (40 %) as surfactant and Transcutol P (40 %) as co-surfactant were concluded to be optimized components. The prepared SMEDDS was characterized through its droplet size, zeta potential, emulsification time, rheological determination and transmission electron microscopy. The optimized formulation exhibited 94 % in vitro drug release, which was significantly higher than that of the drug solution. In vivo studies using the Triton-induced hyperlipidemia model in Wistar rats revealed considerable reduction in lipid levels compared to pure lovastatin. The study confirmed the potential of lovastatin SMEDDS for oral administration.
Gupta A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Aggarwal G.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy |
Singla S.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy |
Arora R.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy
Scientia Pharmaceutica | Year: 2012
The aim of the present study was to investigate transfersomes as a transdermal delivery system for the poorly soluble drug, sertraline, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different transfersomal formulations were prepared with non-ionic surfactant (span 80), soya lecithin, and carbopol 940 by the rotary evaporation sonication method. The prepared formulations were characterized for light microscopy, particle size analysis, drug entrapment, turbidity, drug content, rheological studies, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, and stability studies. The optimized formulation was evaluated for in vivo studies using the modified forced swim model test. FTIR studies showed compatibility of the drug with excipients. The result revealed that sertraline in all of the formulations was successfully entrapped with uniform drug content. Transfersomal gel containing 1.6% of the drug and 20% of span 80 was concluded to be the optimized formulation (EL-SP4), as it showed maximum drug entrapment (90.4±0.15%) and cumulative percent drug release(73.8%). The ex vivo permeation profile of EL-SP4 was compared with the transfersomal suspension, control gel, and drug solution. The transfersomal gel showed a significantly higher (p<0.05) cumulative amount of drug permeation and flux along with lower lag time than the drug solution and drug gel. It also owed to better applicability due to the higher viscosity imparted by the gel rather than the transfersomal suspension, and no skin irritation was observed. The modified forced swim test in mice revealed that the transfersomal gel had better antidepressant activity as compared to the control gel. Thus, the study substantiated that the transfersomal gel can be used as a feasible alternative to the conventional formulations of sertraline with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application. © Gupta et al.
Sarin R.V.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Narwal S.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Bafna P.A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ocimum kilimandscharicum Baker ex Güerke, commonly referred to as Kapur Tulsi, is a medicinal herb that belongs to the family of Lamiaceae. It is traditionally popular for its gastroprotective effects, including its use as a digestive and anti-diarrhoeal. Aim of the study The present study aims to prove the anti-diarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Ocimum kilimandscharicum in animal models. Materials and methods The aqueous extract was tested at three different dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. in rats and the corresponding doses in mice) against castor-oil induced diarrhoea model and castor oil induced enteropooling assay in rats; and charcoal meal test/intestinal motility test in mice. The parameters observed were the onset of defecation, cumulative faecal weight and consistency of faeces in the castor oil induced diarrhoea model; the weight of intestinal content in castor oil induced enteropooling assay; and the distance travelled by charcoal in the intestinal motility test. Results A significant delay in the onset of defecation (p<0.05), reduction in the cumulative faecal weight (p<0.001), along with a change in the faecal consistency from watery to solid form was observed at the dose of 200 mg/kg in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model. Similarly, the extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg (p<0.01) and 200 mg/kg (p<0.001) significantly decreased the weight of intestinal content in castor oil induced enteropooling assay. In the charcoal meal test the extract at the dose of 280 mg/kg (corresponding to 200 mg/kg in rats) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the distance travelled by charcoal. Conclusion The aqueous extract of leaves of Ocimum kilimandscharicum showed anti-diarrhoeal activity, which may be due to its anti-motility and anti-secretory effects, which thus proved the traditional claims. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muthuraman A.,Rayat institute of pharmacy |
Sood S.,Rayat institute of pharmacy
Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury | Year: 2010
Background: Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is common in various pathological conditions like diabetic complication, rheumatic arthritis, necrotizing vascular occlusive disease and trauma.Methods: We have evaluated the effect of tacrolimus (1, 2 and 3 mg/kg, p.o. for 10 consecutive days) on femoral arterial ischemic reperfusion (I/R) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Behavioral parameters (i.e. hot plate, radiant heat, acetone drop, tail heat hyperalgesia, tail flick and tail cold allodynia tests) were assessed at different time intervals (i.e. 0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16thday) and biochemical analysis in serum and tissue samples were also performed along with histopathological studies.Results: Behavioral pain assessment revealed increase in the paw and tail withdrawal threshold in tacrolimus treated groups against hyperalgesic and allodynic stimuli as compared to the sham control group. We observed a decrease in the serum nitrate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels along with reduction in tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) and total calcium levels, whereas, rise in tissue reduced glutathione levels in tacrolimus treated groups. However, significant results were obtained in medium and high dose treated group as compared to sham control group. Histopathological study had revealed the increase in the neuronal edema and axonal degeneration in the I/R group whereas, tacrolimus ameliorate these effects.Conclusion: Our results indicate the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and calcium modulatory actions of tacrolimus. Therefore, it can be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of vascular inflammatory related neuropathic pain. © 2010 Muthuraman and Sood; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Muthuraman A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Sood S.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2010
In the present study, we tried to explore the mechanism of montelukast as an antiulcerogenic agent in pyloric ligation (PL) and water immersion stress (WIS) induced peptic ulcer. The ameliorative effects of montelukast (5, 10, and 20. mg/kg, p.o.) on gastric volume and total acidity were studied in PL model. We have investigated the alteration in the ulcerative index, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, activity of myeloperoxidase, and total calcium level in both models. Estimation of DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis was also performed. Medium and higher doses of montelukast showed significant (. p<0.05) ameliorative potential on all the above parameters as compared with omeprazole treated group. DNA fragmentation pattern clearly indicated the antiapoptotic effect of montelukast in preventing mucosal erosion in both models. Hence, the gastroprotective effect of montelukast may be attributed to its antisecretory, antioxidative along with its antiapoptotic effect. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Pandit A.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Sachdeva T.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Bafna P.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2012
Liver is the principle organ for maintaining the body's internal environment. There is currently no way to reimburse for the absence of liver function. Its major influence is on the flow of nutrients and controls the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fats. Drugs are an important cause of liver injury. More than 900 drugs, toxins, and herbs have been reported to cause liver injury. Approximately 75% of the idiosyncratic drug reactions result in liver transplantation or death. Various types of drug induced liver diseases are acute-dose dependent liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, active chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver tumors etc. In the United States, approximately 2000 cases of acute liver failure occur annually and drugs account for over 50% of them (37% are due to acetaminophen, 13% are idiosyncratic reactions due to other medications). Drugs account for 2-5% of cases of patients hospitalized with jaundice and approximately 10% of all cases of acute hepatitis. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis account for some 2% of mean in 17 countries with nearly 40,000 deaths per year. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review throws light on various drugs which induce hepatotoxicity, with their mechanism of liver damage and clinical scenario.
Vij T.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy |
Prashar Y.,Rayat Institute of Pharmacy
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a popular and important fruit tree in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The fruit is consumed worldwide as fresh fruit and vegetable or used as processed product. The fruit is healthy and delicious and the whole plant parts including fruit, root, bark, peel, seeds and pulp are also known to have medicinal properties. The many benefits of papaya are owed due to high content of vitamin A, B and C, proteolytic enzymes like papain and chymopapain which have antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties. During the last few years, major insight has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal application of papaya and now it is considered a valuable neutraceutical fruit plant. In the present review, nutritional value of the fruit and medicinal properties of its various parts have been discussed to provide collective information on this multipurpose commercial fruit crop. © 2015 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.