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Kumar S.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Suman,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Sharma S.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Kalra P.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC), protein content (PK). Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01) in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01) as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals. Source


Chaudhary G.D.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy | Kalia A.N.,JKK Nataraja Dental College and Hospital
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2014

Antioxidant activities of the ethanol (90%) extract of seeds of Lawsonia inermis L., as well as chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fractions extracted from the 90% ethanol extract were examined by a DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRPA) as Non-site specific assays and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) as site specific assay. The 90% ethanol extract and its fractions along with the reference samples, gallic acid and rutin were further analysed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu's method and total flavonoids content by Aluminium chloride method. In Non-site specific assays showed significant scavenging activity for the ethanol (90%) extract and its other fractions. Site-specific lipid peroxidation also confirms the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract and results were compared with standard antioxidant (Butyl hydroxy toluene). In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract showed significant (P < 0.05) activity in all systems, such results might be attributed to the prominent antioxidant effect. The antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were concentration dependent. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that the L. inermis seeds extract and its fractions may be valuable natural antioxidant sources and are potentially applicable in both medicine and the healthy food industry. Source


Kaur A.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy | Harikumar S.L.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2012

A cure for rheumatoid arthritis is yet to be discovered. Although vast resources have been expended in the search for an immunological key to switch off the rheumatoid process, the most significant advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in recent times had come from gaining better understanding and skill in the safe use of existing disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). If prescribed appropriately and combined with adequate patient education and monitoring, Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are safe and effective tools in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The step down approach has been proposed for the treatment of patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis who have clinical features predictive of an adverse prognosis. More efficient 'targeting' of drugs at the site of desired action should help to minimize the adverse effects of therapy. Ultimately the most efficient way of relieving pain and stiffness will be to prevent or suppress the inflammatory disorders which give rise to the symptoms. Unfortunately this is a goal at present. Source


Grewal A.K.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy | Jaggi A.S.,Punjabi University | Rana A.C.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy | Singh N.,Punjabi University
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The present study was designed to investigate the putative effect of neurosteroid modulation on global ischaemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion, produced a significant rise in cerebral infarct size along with impairment of grip strength and motor coordination in Swiss albino mice. Administration of carbamazepine (16 mg/kg, i.p.) before global cerebral ischaemia significantly attenuated cerebral infarct size and improved the motor performance. However, administration of indomethacin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the neuroprotective effect of carbamazepine. Mexiletine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) did not produce significant neuroprotective effect. It may be concluded that the neuroprotective effect of carbamazepine may be due to increase in synthesis of neurosteroids perhaps by activating enzyme (3a HSD) as indomethacin attenuated the neuroprotective effect of carbamazepine. The sodium channel blocking effect of carbamazepine may not be involved in neuroprotection as mexiletine, a sodium channel blocker, did not produce significant neuroprotective effect. Source


Aggarwal G.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy | Dhawan S.,Panjab University | Hari Kumar S.L.,Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2013

The efficacy of oral risperidone treatment in prevention of schizophrenia is well known. However, oral side effects and patient compliance is always a problem for schizophrenics. In this study, risperidone was formulated into matrix transdermal patches to overcome these problems. The formulation factors for such patches, including eudragit RL 100 and eudragit RS 100 as matrix forming polymers, olive oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil in different concentrations as enhancers and amount of drug loaded were investigated. The transdermal patches containing risperidone were prepared by solvent casting method and characterized for physicochemical and in vitro permeation studies through excised rat skin. Among the tested preparations, formulations with 20% risperidone, 3:2 ERL 100 and ERS 100 as polymers, mixture of olive oil and jojoba oil as enhancer, exhibited greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1.87 ± 0.09 mg/cm2) in 72 h, so batch ROJ was concluded as optimized formulation and assessed for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and skin irritation potential. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the optimized risperidone patch were determined using rabbits, while orally administered risperidone in solution was used for comparison. The calculated relative bioavailability of risperidone transdermal patch was 115.20% with prolonged release of drug. Neuroleptic efficacy of transdermal formulation was assessed by rota-rod and grip test in comparison with control and marketed oral formulations with no skin irritation. This suggests the transdermal application of risperidone holds promise for improved bioavailability and better management of schizophrenia in long-term basis. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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