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Patel G.S.,Rawal Institute of Engineering and Technology | Sharma S.,Thapar University
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing | Year: 2014

Phase Lock Loop (PLL) and Delay Locked Loops (DLLs) are major analog circuits used for many different communication applications such as frequency synthesizer, radio, computer, clock generation and recovery, global positioning system etc. This paper developed a methodical approach to calculate jitter of the PLL and DLL. The methodological nature of our approach would manifest itself in the development of a clear step-by-step procedure for the design of the constituent components of the same. Finally, jitter of DLL has been reduced by proposed technique. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Gupta V.,Uttarakhand Technical University | Sharma M.,Rawal Institute of Engineering and Technology
OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2012

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a metabolic side product of oxidative stress process, which causes several diseases like atherosclerosis, cancer, etc. In defense of ROS, antioxidants play a key role in combating them. As the process of aging increases, the level of antioxidants in our body decreases and thereby needs utmost attention for its repair process, which is generally administered externally. Plant products serve a best source for controlling these activities by its own metabolic pathway. Studies on the antioxidant activities of Maytenus emarginata leaf extracts are lacking. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Maytenus emarginata was determined by DPPH free radical nitric oxide scavenging assays, superoxide ion scavenging assays, ABTS, and iron chelating methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract of Maytenus emarginata leaves possesses phenols, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, and triterpenoids. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared to the standard antioxidant (ascorbic acid) in a dose-dependent manner, and remarkable activities to scavenge ROS may be attributed by the presence of the above active compounds in the leaves. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoid contents were also estimated. The DPPH, ABTS, Nitric oxide, superoxide, and iron chelating IC50 values of the methanolic extracts were 12.44, 24.27, 22.41, 5.85, and 2.74 μg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 10.69 mg CA/g, whereas the total flavonoid was 1.56 mg CAE/g. The antioxidant activities were correlated with the total phenolic content. This result suggests that the relatively high antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract compared to standard could be possibly be due to its high phenolic content. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Patel G.S.,Rawal Institute of Engineering and Technology | Sharma K.,Thapar University
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2013

The paper presents a new technique to improve the performance of DDFS (Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis) on FPGA Nanotechnology. It is a kind of frequency synthesizer that uses electronic methods for digitally creating arbitrary waveforms and frequencies from a single, fixed source frequency. DDFS is a mixed signal part i.e., it has both digital and analog parts. DDFS's digital part is also known as Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO), which consists of a Phase Register, a Phase Accumulator (PA) and a ROM. The analog part has Digital-to-Analog Converter and a filter. NCO is a digital computing block which renders digital word sequences in time at a given reference clock frequency fclk, which thereafter are converted into analog signals to serve as a synthesizer. The DDFS circuits proposed in this paper compare favorably with previously proposed approaches. The focus of this work is on design, analysis and simulation of DDFS, using tools Xilinx and MATLAB and implement on FPGA Nanotechnology. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers. Source


Sharma S.K.,Shivalik Institute of Engineering and Technology | Sharma B.S.,Institute of Basic Science | Kumar R.,Institute of Basic Science | Kumar R.,Rawal Institute of Engineering and Technology
Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics | Year: 2013

An expression for the volume dependence of thermal pressure is formulated using basic thermodynamic identities. It is applied to aluminium metal for which sufficiently reliable data are available for comparison. The calculations are performed using the two models viz. the Thomas-Fermi model and the Stacey-Davis model. It is found that the values of thermal pressure for m=6 in both models are almost the same. Thermal pressure increases with the increase in pressure. The anhormonic effects are found to be dominant below about (P=60 GPa). While above this, harmonic effects become dominant. The anharmonic effects are very important at low pressures and become less significant as the pressure is increased. Values of thermal pressure have been calculated by taking into account the effect of the change in volume on melting. The results obtained for aluminium indicate that the present model is capable of predicting the volume dependence of thermal pressure, which is found to be in good agreement with the available data for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. Source


Patel G.S.,Rawal Institute of Engineering and Technology | Sharma S.,Thapar University
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2014

The paper presents a new technique to improve the performance of All-Digital Phase Locked Loop (ADPLL) IP core on FPGA Nanotechnology. The FPGA maintains the advantages of custom functionality like an ASIC while avoiding the high development costs and the inability to make design modifications after production. If excellent platforms like FPGA have the support of predefined and pre-verified IP cores, the concept of 24 hour system on chip is very much possible. The current design of ADPLL IP core is meant for this very purpose. Implementation of a digital PLL on a FPGA helps to control the jitter involved in the operation of PLLs to a greater extent that is troubling the current communication industry. The proposed work in this paper compare favorably with previously proposed approaches. The focus of this work is on design, analysis and implementation of ADPLL on Xilinx FPGA-Nanotechnology platform. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved. Source

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