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Aremu M.O.,Nasarawa State University | Ozonyia G.N.,Raw Materials Research and Development Council RMRDC | Ikokoh P.P.,Sheda Science and Technology Complex
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The quality of raw water normally varies from one site to another, depending on the source of water, its contact with air and environment. Water sample collected from nine sampling points of three different sources (wells, boreholes and streams) within Kubwa in Bwari Area Council, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria were analyzed for some physicochemical parameters and metal concentrations by using standard analytical techniques. The physicochemical parameters determined were: temperature, pH, turbidity, BOD, DO 2, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, conductivity, total hardness, NO 3 - and Cl - while that of metals were: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Ni. High spatial variations in the concentrations of the physicochemical parameters and metals were recorded while NO 3 - and Cd were not detected in any of the water samples. Generally, the physicochemical properties of the water samples analyzed were within the required standard limits set by WHO/EU except for Pb and Fe, however source protection is proposed for these waters for the benefit of mankind.

Buga M.L.,Raw Materials Research and Development Council RMRDC | Ibrahim S.,Ahmadu Bello University | Nok A.J.,Ahmadu Bello University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Polygalacturonase (PG) was isolated from Aspergillus niger (A. niger) (SA6), partially purified, characterized and immobilized by entrapment using calcium alginate. The polygalacturonase showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) suggesting an "endo and exo" polygalacturonase with apparent molecular weights of 35 and 40 KDa, respectively. The enzyme was purified 9 fold with a yield of 0.18% and specific activity of 246 μmole/min/mg. The apparent KM and Vmax of the immobilized polygalacturonase were11.1 mg/ml and 1.65 μmole/min/mg, respectively. The optimum pH and optimum temperature of the immobilized polygalacturonase were 4.5 and 40°C, respectively. Immobilized polygalacturonase exhibited more stability to changes in pH than the temperature. The activity of the immobilized polygalacturonase reduced to 34.56 and 14.81% of the initial activity in the second and third catalytic cycles, respectively. The half life of the enzyme and the activity lost per minute on thermal storage were 10 min and 0.0213 μMole of D-galacturonic acid. © 2010 Academic Journals.

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