Ericsson M.,Raw Materials Group |
Larsson V.,Lulei University of Technology
Engineering and Mining Journal | Year: 2012
E&MJ's annual survey of global mining investment revealed that the rate of new project announcements slowed in late 2011. It was revealed that 136 new mining projects with a total projected value of $74 million were registered in Raw Materials Group's Mines/Projects database during the period. Investment activity in 2011 was higher than in 2010 but the latest developments raised concerns for the future. The number of projects announced in the third and fourth quarters of 2011 declined when compared with the same period in 2010 and the number of new projects announced annually remained static from 2009. Metal prices declined in the second half of 2011 but remained comparatively high when taking into account the three most economically important metals, such as iron ore, copper, and gold.
Kadouche D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Ducatez M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Cenci U.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Tirtiaux C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 11 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2016
At variance with the starch-accumulating plants and most of the glycogen-accumulating cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp. CLg1 synthesizes both glycogen and starch. We now report the selection of a starchless mutant of this cyanobacterium that retains wild-type amounts of glycogen. Unlike other mutants of this type found in plants and cyanobacteria, this mutant proved to be selectively defective for one of the two types of glycogen/starch synthase: GlgA2. This enzyme is phylogenetically related to the previously reported SSIII/SSIV starch synthase that is thought to be involved in starch granule seeding in plants. This suggests that, in addition to the selective polysaccharide debranching demonstrated to be responsible for starch rather than glycogen synthesis, the nature and properties of the elongation enzyme define a novel determinant of starch versus glycogen accumulation. We show that the phylogenies of GlgA2 and of 16S ribosomal RNA display significant congruence. This suggests that this enzyme evolved together with cyanobacteria when they diversified over 2 billion years ago. However, cyanobacteria can be ruled out as direct progenitors of the SSIII/SSIV ancestral gene found in Archaeplastida. Hence, both cyanobacteria and plants recruited similar enzymes independently to perform analogous tasks, further emphasizing the importance of convergent evolution in the appearance of starch from a preexisting glycogen metabolism network. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
Magnus E.,Raw Materials Group
Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels | Year: 2010
Several iron ore companies have witnessed a significant decline in their production the year 2009-2010. Brazilian Vale, a largest ore producer has witnessed a decline due to both drastic cuts in production in the year 2009 because of the collapse in the North American and European steel markets. Rio Tinto increased its production by only 8 million tones after having cut down in the year 2009 and this resulted in a marginal loss of market shares down to 8.7 per cent. One of the ways to the measure the iron ore corporate concentration control is to monitor the share of global seaborne trade of the leading companies. Steel companies in Europe and North America have withdrawn from mining and the mining companies have consolidated. A new strong tendency towards more direct links between mines and steelworks has emerged with the restructuring of the Russian and Ukrainian industries. Steel companies in the traditional market economies (including developing countries) control 12% companies in the CIS countries 5%, and major Chinese steel companies control 3%.
Ericsson M.,Lulea University of Technology |
Gylesjo S.,Raw Materials Group
Mineral Economics | Year: 2014
This study was initiated to address the importance of properly functioning African geological surveys. Africa’s current developmental needs require a robust geoscientific infrastructure and knowledge that can only be achieved through well-developed geological surveys. A geoscientific infrastructure covers a wide range of geo-related areas, e.g. geological mapping, geophysical surveys and geochemical analyses that are needed for a variety of purposes, such as exploration, land-use planning, water resource assessment etc. Many geological surveys in Africa lack human, material and economic resources and therefore cannot perform their work effectively. The questionnaire used as a base for this study was made by Danièle Barberis (French) and Susanne Gylesjö (English). Compilation of the data and the report was performed by Susanne Gylesjö with assistance from Magnus Ericsson. © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Ericsson M.,Lulea University of Technology |
Tegen A.,Raw Materials Group
Mineral Economics | Year: 2016
The platinum group mining industry is among the most concentrated of all metal mining industries. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index for palladium is 2413 in 2014, on the threshold to what is defined as “highly concentrated”. When considering that production is also concentrated in a few countries, more than 80 % of total world production is mined in South Africa and Russia, it is obvious that platinum group metals (PGMs) are labelled “critical” by many governments such as the EU, Japan and the USA (EU Commission 2014; National Research Council 2008; Prime Minister of Japan 2015). The development of the corporate structure for PGMs is analysed. Into the future, it looks as if the degree of concentration will decrease. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.