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Datta S.R.,University College London | McQuillin A.,University College London | Rizig M.,University College London | Blaveri E.,University College London | And 16 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Markers at the pericentriolar material 1 gene (PCM1) have shown genetic association with schizophrenia in both a University College London (UCL) and a USA-based case-control sample. In this paper we report a statistically significant replication of the PCM1 association in a large Scottish case-control sample from Aberdeen. Resequencing of the genomic DNA from research volunteers who had inherited haplotypes associated with schizophrenia showed a threonine to isoleucine missense mutation in exon 24 which was likely to change the structure and function of PCM1 (rs370429). This mutation was found only as a heterozygote in 98 schizophrenic research subjects and controls out of 2246 case and control research subjects. Among the 98 carriers of rs370429, 67 were affected with schizophrenia. The same alleles and haplotypes were associated with schizophrenia in both the London and Aberdeen samples. Another potential aetiological base pair change in PCM1 was rs445422, which altered a splice site signal. A further mutation, rs208747, was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays to create or destroy a promoter transcription factor site. Five further non-synonymous changes in exons were also found. Genotyping of the new variants discovered in the UCL case-control sample strengthened the evidence for allelic and haplotypic association (P=0.02-0.0002). Given the number and identity of the haplotypes associated with schizophrenia, further aetiological base pair changes must exist within and around the PCM1 gene. PCM1 protein has been shown to interact directly with the disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein, Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4, and Huntingtin-associated protein 1, and is important in neuronal cell growth. In a separate study we found that clozapine but not haloperidol downregulated PCM1 expression in the mouse brain. We hypothesize that mutant PCM1 may be responsible for causing a subtype of schizophrenia through abnormal cell division and abnormal regeneration in dividing cells in the central nervous system. This is supported by our previous finding of orbitofrontal volumetric deficits in PCM1-associated schizophrenia patients as opposed to temporal pole deficits in non-PCM1-associated schizophrenia patients. Caution needs to be exercised in interpreting the actual biological effects of the mutations we have found without further cell biology. However, the DNA changes we have found deserve widespread genotyping in multiple case-control populations. © 2010 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

Chen X.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Lee G.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Maher B.S.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Fanous A.H.,Virginia Commonwealth University | And 141 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2011

We conducted data-mining analyses using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and molecular genetics of schizophrenia genome-wide association study supported by the genetic association information network (MGS-GAIN) schizophrenia data sets and performed bioinformatic prioritization for all the markers with P-values ≤0.05 in both data sets. In this process, we found that in the CMYA5 gene, there were two non-synonymous markers, rs3828611 and rs10043986, showing nominal significance in both the CATIE and MGS-GAIN samples. In a combined analysis of both the CATIE and MGS-GAIN samples, rs4704591 was identified as the most significant marker in the gene. Linkage disequilibrium analyses indicated that these markers were in low LD (3 828 611-rs10043986, r 2=0.008; rs10043986-rs4704591, r 2=0.204). In addition, CMYA5 was reported to be physically interacting with the DTNBP1 gene, a promising candidate for schizophrenia, suggesting that CMYA5 may be involved in the same biological pathway and process. On the basis of this information, we performed replication studies for these three single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The rs3828611 was found to have conflicting results in our Irish samples and was dropped out without further investigation. The other two markers were verified in 23 other independent data sets. In a meta-analysis of all 23 replication samples (family samples, 912 families with 4160 subjects; case-control samples, 11 380 cases and 15 021 controls), we found that both markers are significantly associated with schizophrenia (rs10043986, odds ratio (OR)=1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-1.18, P=8.2 × 10 -4 and rs4704591, OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.03-1.11, P=3.0 × 10 -4). The results were also significant for the 22 Caucasian replication samples (rs10043986, OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.03-1.17, P=0.0026 and rs4704591, OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.02-1.11, P=0.0015). Furthermore, haplotype conditioned analyses indicated that the association signals observed at these two markers are independent. On the basis of these results, we concluded that CMYA5 is associated with schizophrenia and further investigation of the gene is warranted. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Steinberg S.,DeCODE Genetics Inc. | de Jong S.,University Utrecht | Andreassen O.A.,University of Oslo | Werge T.,Copenhagen University | And 94 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2011

Common sequence variants have recently joined rare structural polymorphisms as genetic factors with strong evidence for association with schizophrenia. Here we extend our previous genome-wide association study and meta-analysis (totalling 7 946 cases and 19 036 controls) by examining an expanded set of variants using an enlarged follow-up sample (up to 10 260 cases and 23 500 controls). In addition to previously reported alleles in the major histocompatibility complex region, near neurogranin (NRGN) and in an intron of transcription factor 4 (TCF4), we find two novel variants showing genome-wide significant association: rs2312147[C], upstream of vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, P = 1.9 × 10-9] and rs4309482[A], between coiled-coiled domain containing 68 (CCDC68) and TCF4, about 400 kb from the previously described risk allele, but not accounted for by its association (OR = 1.09, P = 7.8 × 10-9). © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Ingason A.,DeCODE Genetics Inc. | Ingason A.,Copenhagen University | Rujescu D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Cichon S.,University of Bonn | And 48 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Deletions and reciprocal duplications of the chromosome 16p13.1 region have recently been reported in several cases of autism and mental retardation (MR). As genomic copy number variants found in these two disorders may also associate with schizophrenia, we examined 4345 schizophrenia patients and 35 079 controls from 8 European populations for duplications and deletions at the 16p13.1 locus, using microarray data. We found a threefold excess of duplications and deletions in schizophrenia cases compared with controls, with duplications present in 0.30% of cases versus 0.09% of controls (P0.007) and deletions in 0.12 % of cases and 0.04% of controls (P0.05). The region can be divided into three intervals defined by flanking low copy repeats. Duplications spanning intervals I and II showed the most significant (P0.00010) association with schizophrenia. The age of onset in duplication and deletion carriers among cases ranged from 12 to 35 years, and the majority were males with a family history of psychiatric disorders. In a single Icelandic family, a duplication spanning intervals I and II was present in two cases of schizophrenia, and individual cases of alcoholism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia. Candidate genes in the region include NTAN1 and NDE1. We conclude that duplications and perhaps also deletions of chromosome 16p13.1, previously reported to be associated with autism and MR, also confer risk of schizophrenia. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Steinberg S.,DeCODE Genetics Inc. | Mors O.,Aarhus University Hospital | Borglum A.D.,Aarhus University Hospital | Borglum A.D.,University of Aarhus | And 80 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2011

A trio of genome-wide association studies recently reported sequence variants at three loci to be significantly associated with schizophrenia. No sequence polymorphism had been unequivocally (P5 × 10 8) associated with schizophrenia earlier. However, one variant, rs1344706T, had come very close. This polymorphism, located in an intron of ZNF804A, was reported to associate with schizophrenia with a P-value of 1.6 × 10 7, and with psychosis (schizophrenia plus bipolar disorder) with a P-value of 1.0 × 10 8. In this study, using 5164 schizophrenia cases and 20 709 controls, we replicated the association with schizophrenia (odds ratio OR1.08, P0.0029) and, by adding bipolar disorder patients, we also confirmed the association with psychosis (added N609, OR1.09, P0.00065). Furthermore, as it has been proposed that variants such as rs1344706Tcommon and with low relative riskmay also serve to identify regions harboring less common, higher-risk susceptibility alleles, we searched ZNF804A for large copy number variants (CNVs) in 4235 psychosis patients, 1173 patients with other psychiatric disorders and 39 481 controls. We identified two CNVs including at least part of ZNF804A in psychosis patients and no ZNF804A CNVs in controls (P0.013 for association with psychosis). In addition, we found a ZNF804A CNV in an anxiety patient (P0.0016 for association with the larger set of psychiatric disorders). © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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