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Mastan Rao Y.,SRM University | Aparna Lakshmi I.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Saroja M.,SRM University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

Aim: To compare the effects of different ACEI with those acted by their blockade of ROS by sulfhydryl group and non sulfhydryl groups in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Method: In this study we determined the effect of ACEI on TOS, TAS and TOSI. The body weight measurement and blood glucose levels were checked for every week until the end of the study by using the GOD/POD method. The parameters are found by using the eral method, by observing the absorbance at 560nm for TOS, 444nm for TAS. The TOSI was found by taking the percentage ratio of TOS and TAS. Results: The TOS value of Captopril was less (15.18 ± 2.16) when compared to other ACEI [Lisinopril (20.87 ± 1.69) and Enalapril (19.03 ± 3.14)] which indicate that the level of free radicals was low in case of Captopril treated group than other ACEI. In contrast the TAS value of Captopril was more (2.57 ± 2.16) when compared to other ACEI [Lisinopril (1.39 ± 1.69) and Enalapril (1.73 ± 3.14)]. All these values predict that the captopril has more antioxidant activity than the non sulfhydril angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors Enalapril and Lisinopril. Conclusion: The present study revealed the Captopril is having more potent action of reducing the TOS in the serum levels and has the higher extent of the TAS than the other two ACEI, Enalapril and Lisinopril but when compared to Enalapril and Lisinopril Enalapril is having the more potent action than the Lisinopril in daily recommended doses. Source

Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Asharani I.V.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

The aim of the present study was to develop the HPTLC fingerprint and to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of ethanol extract of leaves of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd (A. madraspatana). HPTLC fingerprint analysis of ethanol extract was investigated by win CATS planar chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the various antioxidant assays, such as total antioxidant, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging. The antioxidant activity was compared to standard drug ascorbic acid. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inhibition of albumin denaturation assay using aspirin as a standard drug. In-vitro anti-diabetic activity was evaluated by á-amylase inhibition assay using acarbose as a standard drug. The HPTLC fingerprint of ethanol extract has shown six peaks, which indicate the presence of six different phytocomponents. The in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of ethanol extract of plant leaves increased with the increasing of concentration. The result revealed that extract in all the concentration showed the in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities compared to standard drugs. The ethanol extract of leaves of A. madraspatana has a potential effect as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic in all the tested in-vitro methods. Source

Maideen N.M.P.,Vels University | Velayutham R.,Vels University | Manavalan G.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Phytomedicine

The aim of the study is to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of methanol extract of Phyllanthus polyphyllus (MPP) against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200mg/kg) induced experimental liver tumors in male wistar rats. Administration of Phyllanthus polyphyllus (200 and 400mg/kg) effectively suppressed liver tumor induced by DEN as revealed by decrease in DEN induced elevated levels of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (LPO), deoxy ribonucleic acid (DNA), ribo nucleic acid (RNA) and liver weight. The extract produced an increase in mitochondrial enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non enzymatic antioxidants (Reduced Glutathione (GSH)) levels when compared to liver tumor bearing animals. Our data suggest that MPP may extend its chemopreventive effect by modulating the levels of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, DNA and RNA and liver weight and augmenting mitochondrial antioxidant defense system. Source

Chandra Sekhar K.B.,JNTUA OTRI | Nivedhitha S.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Alagarsamy V.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory | Gobinath M.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences

Ficus dalhousiae Miq.(Family:Moraceae) known as Somalvalkam in Sanskrit is an endemic to peninsular India and very rare plant of Andhra Pradesh. It is found growing in rock crevices of dry deciduous forest. It is used in traditional system of Indian medicine in the treatment of liver disorders and cardiac problems. Ficus species are rich source of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds that are responsible for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases. As there are no reports available on the morphology and phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem bark of Ficus dalhousiae, the present investigation was carried out to lay down the standards, which could be very useful in the future experimental studies. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical constants. The chief features of the transverse section of leaves are the presence of single layered palisade layer, cyclic stomata, druses of calcium oxalate and vascular bundles. Stem bark shows prismatic calcium oxalate, high tannin content in periderm, abundant starch. The main powder characters are calcium oxalate, unicellular covering trichomes, isolated cystoliths, laticifers. The preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of steroids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrates. This study along with the quantitative microscopic data can be useful in the detection and evaluation of the leaf and stem bark material in any form or formulations of this rare and endemic species. Source

Nivedhitha S.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Alagarsamy V.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory | Chandrasekhar K.B.,JNTUA OTRI | Gobinath M.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of the leaf and stem bark (EELFD, EEBFD) of Ficus dalhousiae Miq. Fam. Moraceae. The antioxidant activity of the extracts has been evaluated by using a variety of in vitro assays and an in vivo hepatoprotective model. The test extracts exhibited potential scavenging effects on DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide free radicals. In the in vivo hepatoprotective model the EELFD and EEBFD significantly increased the hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzymes and decreased the lipid peroxidation. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds of the EELFD and EEBFD. The result obtained in the present study justifies that Ficus dalhousiae is a potential source of natural antioxidant activity. Source

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