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Annamalai J.K.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Devarajan S.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Objective: Prasugrel hydrochloride is used as an anti-platelet drug for the treatment of myocardial infarction prevention, Thrombosis prevention after percutaneous coronary intervention, Platelet-aggregation inhibitors etc. The aim of the present study is to develop a new analytical method for the estimation of Prasugrel hydrochloride in bulk and in tablet dosage form. Methods: Spectroscopic method-1 and RP-HPLC method-2 have been developed for the quantification of Prasugrel hydrochloride in bulk and in the formulation. These methods are simple, cost effective, accurate and precise. Results: In method-1, Prasugrel hydrochloride showed maximum absorbance at 252 nm in methanol which is selected as solvent for analysis based on it stability. Beer's law obeyed in the concentration range of 10-60 mcg/ml. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 1.0195 and 3.0896 mcg/ml respectively. In RP-HPLC (method-2), the mobile phase selected is Acetonitrile: Trifluroacetic acid in the ratio 45:55% v/v. The flow rate was 0.1 ml/min. The linearity range was found to be 10-60 mcg/ml. The formulation EFIENT was selected for analysis and the amount present was found to be 100.53% and 106.95% for method 1 and 2 respectively. Conclusion: Both the methods are validated as per ICH guidelines. The methods were found to be simple, accurate, precise and rapid.


Kanala K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur | Kanala K.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | T. Hwisa N.,University of Al Zawia | Chandu B.R.,University of Al Zawia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis | Year: 2013

A simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of milnacipran (MC) in rat plasma by using the liquid-liquid extraction method. Milnacipran-d10 (MCD10) was used as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved on Zorbax SB-CN (4.6 mm×75 mm, 3.5 μm) column with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0) and methanol in the ratio of 25:75(v/v), at a flow-rate of 0.7 mL/min. MC and MCD10 were detected with proton adducts at m/z 247.2→230.3 and m/z 257.2→240.4 in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) positive mode respectively. The method was validated over a linear concentration range of 1.00-400.00 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient (r2)≥0.9850. This method demonstrated intra- and inter-day precision within 5.40-10.85% and 4.40-8.29% and accuracy within 97.00-104.20% and 101.64-106.23%. MC was found to be stable throughout three freeze-thaw cycles, bench top and postoperative stability studies. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of rats through i.v. administration. © 2013 Xi'an Jiaotong University.


PubMed | Madras Medical College, Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy and Arba Minch University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Avicenna journal of phytomedicine | Year: 2016

Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight and oxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profile in rats.Oral administration of methanolic extract of The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of


Mastan Rao Y.,SRM University | Aparna Lakshmi I.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Saroja M.,SRM University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2011

Aim: To compare the effects of different ACEI with those acted by their blockade of ROS by sulfhydryl group and non sulfhydryl groups in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Method: In this study we determined the effect of ACEI on TOS, TAS and TOSI. The body weight measurement and blood glucose levels were checked for every week until the end of the study by using the GOD/POD method. The parameters are found by using the eral method, by observing the absorbance at 560nm for TOS, 444nm for TAS. The TOSI was found by taking the percentage ratio of TOS and TAS. Results: The TOS value of Captopril was less (15.18 ± 2.16) when compared to other ACEI [Lisinopril (20.87 ± 1.69) and Enalapril (19.03 ± 3.14)] which indicate that the level of free radicals was low in case of Captopril treated group than other ACEI. In contrast the TAS value of Captopril was more (2.57 ± 2.16) when compared to other ACEI [Lisinopril (1.39 ± 1.69) and Enalapril (1.73 ± 3.14)]. All these values predict that the captopril has more antioxidant activity than the non sulfhydril angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors Enalapril and Lisinopril. Conclusion: The present study revealed the Captopril is having more potent action of reducing the TOS in the serum levels and has the higher extent of the TAS than the other two ACEI, Enalapril and Lisinopril but when compared to Enalapril and Lisinopril Enalapril is having the more potent action than the Lisinopril in daily recommended doses.


Chandra Sekhar K.B.,JNTUA OTRI | Nivedhitha S.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Alagarsamy V.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory | Gobinath M.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

Ficus dalhousiae Miq.(Family:Moraceae) known as Somalvalkam in Sanskrit is an endemic to peninsular India and very rare plant of Andhra Pradesh. It is found growing in rock crevices of dry deciduous forest. It is used in traditional system of Indian medicine in the treatment of liver disorders and cardiac problems. Ficus species are rich source of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds that are responsible for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases. As there are no reports available on the morphology and phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem bark of Ficus dalhousiae, the present investigation was carried out to lay down the standards, which could be very useful in the future experimental studies. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical constants. The chief features of the transverse section of leaves are the presence of single layered palisade layer, cyclic stomata, druses of calcium oxalate and vascular bundles. Stem bark shows prismatic calcium oxalate, high tannin content in periderm, abundant starch. The main powder characters are calcium oxalate, unicellular covering trichomes, isolated cystoliths, laticifers. The preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of steroids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrates. This study along with the quantitative microscopic data can be useful in the detection and evaluation of the leaf and stem bark material in any form or formulations of this rare and endemic species.


Nivedhitha S.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Alagarsamy V.,Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory | Chandrasekhar K.B.,JNTUA OTRI | Gobinath M.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of the leaf and stem bark (EELFD, EEBFD) of Ficus dalhousiae Miq. Fam. Moraceae. The antioxidant activity of the extracts has been evaluated by using a variety of in vitro assays and an in vivo hepatoprotective model. The test extracts exhibited potential scavenging effects on DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide free radicals. In the in vivo hepatoprotective model the EELFD and EEBFD significantly increased the hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzymes and decreased the lipid peroxidation. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds of the EELFD and EEBFD. The result obtained in the present study justifies that Ficus dalhousiae is a potential source of natural antioxidant activity.


Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Asharani I.V.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2016

The aim of the present study was to develop the HPTLC fingerprint and to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of ethanol extract of leaves of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd (A. madraspatana). HPTLC fingerprint analysis of ethanol extract was investigated by win CATS planar chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the various antioxidant assays, such as total antioxidant, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging. The antioxidant activity was compared to standard drug ascorbic acid. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inhibition of albumin denaturation assay using aspirin as a standard drug. In-vitro anti-diabetic activity was evaluated by á-amylase inhibition assay using acarbose as a standard drug. The HPTLC fingerprint of ethanol extract has shown six peaks, which indicate the presence of six different phytocomponents. The in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of ethanol extract of plant leaves increased with the increasing of concentration. The result revealed that extract in all the concentration showed the in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities compared to standard drugs. The ethanol extract of leaves of A. madraspatana has a potential effect as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic in all the tested in-vitro methods.


Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Kasisankar V.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Asharani I.V.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Objective: To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of the leaves and stem of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd (Lauraceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Leaf and stem samples of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of the powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are 6 in a whorl, 10-30 cm long, coriaceous, lanceolate, oblanceolate or elliptic. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of sunken stomata, prominent midrib, dorsiventral lamina, three stranded vascular system, small xylem and phloem elements with a vertical extension of bundle sheath fibres, tannin, non glandular trichomes and small epidermal peeling of the stem. Physicochemical parameters such as extractive values, ash content and fluorescent behavior of leaf powder were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids. Conclusions: This is the first report on the pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd and is helpful in the characterization of the crude drug.


PubMed | P.A. College and Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
Type: | Journal: Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine | Year: 2014

A natural prodrug is a chemical compound or substance obtained from plants, microorganism, animal and marine sources. Natural products are small molecule source for Food and Drug Administration approved drugs and major sources for drug discovery. Most of the drugs for different ailment diseases undergo first pass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and the generation of toxic metabolites in body. Enormous numbers of prodrugs naturally present in plants, microorganism, animal and marine sources and those prodrugs undergoes chemical reaction to form non-toxic compounds. This review summarizes the list of prodrugs naturally present in the natural product.


PubMed | Vellore Institute of Technology and Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2016

The aim of the present study was to develop the HPTLC fingerprint and to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of ethanol extract of leaves of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd (A. madraspatana). HPTLC fingerprint analysis of ethanol extract was investigated by win CATS planar chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the various antioxidant assays, such as total antioxidant, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging. The antioxidant activity was compared to standard drug ascorbic acid. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inhibition of albumin denaturation assay using aspirin as a standard drug. In-vitro anti-diabetic activity was evaluated by -amylase inhibition assay using acarbose as a standard drug. The HPTLC fingerprint of ethanol extract has shown six peaks, which indicate the presence of six different phytocomponents. The in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of ethanol extract of plant leaves increased with the increasing of concentration. The result revealed that extract in all the concentration showed the in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities compared to standard drugs. The ethanol extract of leaves of A. madraspatana has a potential effect as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic in all the tested in-vitro methods.

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