Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy

Nellore, India

Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy

Nellore, India
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Annamalai J.K.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Devarajan S.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Objective: Prasugrel hydrochloride is used as an anti-platelet drug for the treatment of myocardial infarction prevention, Thrombosis prevention after percutaneous coronary intervention, Platelet-aggregation inhibitors etc. The aim of the present study is to develop a new analytical method for the estimation of Prasugrel hydrochloride in bulk and in tablet dosage form. Methods: Spectroscopic method-1 and RP-HPLC method-2 have been developed for the quantification of Prasugrel hydrochloride in bulk and in the formulation. These methods are simple, cost effective, accurate and precise. Results: In method-1, Prasugrel hydrochloride showed maximum absorbance at 252 nm in methanol which is selected as solvent for analysis based on it stability. Beer's law obeyed in the concentration range of 10-60 mcg/ml. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 1.0195 and 3.0896 mcg/ml respectively. In RP-HPLC (method-2), the mobile phase selected is Acetonitrile: Trifluroacetic acid in the ratio 45:55% v/v. The flow rate was 0.1 ml/min. The linearity range was found to be 10-60 mcg/ml. The formulation EFIENT was selected for analysis and the amount present was found to be 100.53% and 106.95% for method 1 and 2 respectively. Conclusion: Both the methods are validated as per ICH guidelines. The methods were found to be simple, accurate, precise and rapid.


Padmavathy J.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Rajesh D.,SRM University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011

The present study outlines a systematic approach for designing and development of Ofloxacin floating tablets to enhance the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Floating tablets of Ofloxacin have shown controlled release thereby proper duration of action at a particular site and are designed to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration. Different formulations were formulated by wet granulation technique using HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M and HPMC K100M (floating agent) as polymers along with sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent. The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, buoyancy lag time, total floating time, swelling index and invitro drug release. It was found that the hardness of the tablets affects the Buoyancy characteristic of the dosage form. All six formulations possessed good floating properties with total floating time between 8 - 12 hrs. The invitro cumulative % drug release of the formulations F1A, F1B, F2A, F2B, F3A and F3B were 102.85%, 101.32%, 100.2%, 99.98%, 99.28% and 97.25%.


Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2017

The natural products are the chemical constituents that are generated from the living organism. The natural products are isolated from the plants, animals, and microorganisms which are used in drug design and drug discovery. Natural product is then modified by chemical synthesis as either total or semi-synthetic way. The natural products show various pharmacological activity which can be used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Natural products could be regarded as a source of quantifiable and chemically pure known products and also natural products can be utilized as complex mixtures subjected to chemical variability. The present review article adds up the prodrugs from natural products as well as prodrugs developed from the natural products. © 2017, Bangladesh Pharmacological Society. All rights reserved.


Vinay S.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Karimulla S.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The purpose of the present study was investigating the GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and antidiabetic activity of ethanol extract of the leaves of Jasminum cuspidatum. The anti-diabetic activity was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats with treatment of ethanol extract at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg, which was compared with glibenclamide at a dose level of 4 mg/kg and the parameter measured being the blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides, and total protein. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also investigated in experimental rats. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the ethanol extract contained seven phytoconstituents. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids. The result of in vivo anti-diabetic activity revealed that the ethanol extract of J. cuspidatum showed significant anti-diabetic activity. © 2014 Bangladesh Pharmacological Society. All rights reserved.


Kanti Bag A.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Firdous Mumtaz S.M.,Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and AHS
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Ipomoea staphylina against carbon tertrachloride- and gentamicin-induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats respectively. The extract (200 mg/kg, p.o) showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity by significantly (p<0.001) reducing the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and significantly (p<0.001) increasing the serum total protein. The extract also showed nephroprotective activity against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by significantly (p<0.001) reducing the levels of blood urea, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine and significantly (p<0.001) increasing the serum total protein. The extract also improves the histology of the liver and kidney. The total phenolic content and the total flavonoid content of the extract were 94.59 ± 2.54 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 44.68 ± 2.00 mg rutin equivalent/g respectively.


Firdous Mumtaz S.M.,Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and AHS | Paul S.,Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and AHS | Bag A.K.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The aqueous extract of leaves of Sechium edule was evaluated for its protective activity against gentamicin, potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental animals. In these three conditions, the extract of S. edule (200 mg/kg) has significantly (p<0.001) decreased the level of blood urea, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and also significantly (p<0.001) increased the serum levels of total protein. The serum uric acid level was also significantly (p<0.001) decrease in diabetic mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg). The extract also improves the histology of the kidney. The results indicate that aqueous extract of leaves of S. edule has possessed protective effect against gentamicin-and potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental animals.


Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Kasisankar V.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Asharani I.V.,Vellore Institute of Technology
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

This study was designed to determine the phytocomponents in the methanol and ethanol extracts of leaves of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd by Perkin Elmer gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This investigation was carried out to determine the possible phytocomponents from the methanol and ethanol extracts of leaves of Actinodaphne madraspatana by GC-MS. This analysis revealed that the methanol extract contained six compounds that have been identified mainly as sesquitriterpene lactone compounds and fatty acid ester compounds and ethanol extract contain twenty compounds that have been identified mainly as fatty acid ester, sesquiterpenes, triterpene and steroid. From the results, it is evident that methanol and ethanol extract of leaves of Actinodaphne madraspatana contains various bioactive compounds and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. © JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation.


Sai Saraswathi V.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Himaja M.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Chaitra M.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Chanchal P.,Vellore Institute of Technology
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

The study was designed to determine the chemical composition, and in-vitro anti-arthritic activity of the essential oils from the fresh and dry leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.speciosa). The essential oils from the fresh and dry leaves of L.speciosa were obtained by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger’s apparatus. The chemical composition of the essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Mass spectra were searched against mass spectrometry databases. The anti-arthritic activity was screened by protein denaturation method. The GC-MS analysis of essential oils revealed that totally 38 and 35 chemical components were recognized for fresh and dry leaves respectively that have been identified as Hentriacontane, (4,6,8-Tri-ter-butyl-9-oxa-tricyclo deca-2,4,6-trien-1-yl)-methanol, were found to be major chemical components in fresh and dry leaves respectively. In addition, the results showed the significant in vitro anti-arthritic activity of the various concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg /ml of essential oils using diclofenac as the standard. From the results, it clearly indicates that the essential oils of leaves of L. speciosa possess the higher proportions of long chain hydrocarbon which is responsible for the anti-arthritic activity. © JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation.


Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Asharani I.V.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2016

The aim of the present study was to develop the HPTLC fingerprint and to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of ethanol extract of leaves of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd (A. madraspatana). HPTLC fingerprint analysis of ethanol extract was investigated by win CATS planar chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the various antioxidant assays, such as total antioxidant, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging. The antioxidant activity was compared to standard drug ascorbic acid. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inhibition of albumin denaturation assay using aspirin as a standard drug. In-vitro anti-diabetic activity was evaluated by á-amylase inhibition assay using acarbose as a standard drug. The HPTLC fingerprint of ethanol extract has shown six peaks, which indicate the presence of six different phytocomponents. The in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities of ethanol extract of plant leaves increased with the increasing of concentration. The result revealed that extract in all the concentration showed the in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities compared to standard drugs. The ethanol extract of leaves of A. madraspatana has a potential effect as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic in all the tested in-vitro methods.


Saravanan D.,Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy | Kasisankar V.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Asharani I.V.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Objective: To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of the leaves and stem of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd (Lauraceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Leaf and stem samples of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of the powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are 6 in a whorl, 10-30 cm long, coriaceous, lanceolate, oblanceolate or elliptic. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of sunken stomata, prominent midrib, dorsiventral lamina, three stranded vascular system, small xylem and phloem elements with a vertical extension of bundle sheath fibres, tannin, non glandular trichomes and small epidermal peeling of the stem. Physicochemical parameters such as extractive values, ash content and fluorescent behavior of leaf powder were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids. Conclusions: This is the first report on the pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies of Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd and is helpful in the characterization of the crude drug.

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