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Osterloh K.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Fratzscher D.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Schwabe A.,Rathgen Research Laboratory | Schillinger B.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2011

The effective high neutron scattering absorption coefficient of hydrogen (48.5 cm2/g) due to the scattering allows neutrons to reveal hydrocarbon structures with more contrast than X-rays, but at the same time limits the sample size and thickness that can be investigated. Many planar shaped objects, particularly wood samples, are sufficiently thin to allow thermal neutrons to transmit through the sample in a direction perpendicular to the planar face but not in a parallel direction, due to increased thickness. Often, this is an obstacle that prevents some tomographic reconstruction algorithms from obtaining desired results because of inadequate information or presence of distracting artifacts due to missing projections. This can be true for samples such as the distribution of glue in glulam (boards of wooden layers glued together), or the course of partially visible annual rings in trees where the features of interest are parallel to the planar surface of the sample. However, it should be possible to study these features by rotating the specimen within a limited angular range. In principle, this approach has been shown previously in a study with fast neutrons [2]. A study of this kind was performed at the Antares facility of FRM II in Garching with a 2.6×10 7/cm2 s thermal neutron beam. The limit of penetration was determined for a wooden step wedge carved from a 2 cm×4 cm block of wood in comparison to other materials such as heavy metals and Lucite as specimens rich in hydrogen. The depth of the steps was 1 cm, the height 0.5 cm. The annual ring structures were clearly detectable up to 2 cm thickness. Wooden specimens, i.e. shivers, from a sunken old ship have been subjected to tomography. Not visible from the outside, clear radial structures have been found that are typical for certain kinds of wood. This insight was impaired in a case where the specimen had been soaked with ethylene glycol. In another large sample study, a planar board made of glulam has been studied to show the glued layers. This study shows not only the limits of penetration in wood but also demonstrates access to structures perpendicular to the surface in larger planar objects by tomography with fast neutrons, even with incomplete sets of projection data that covers an angular range of only 90° or even 60°. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lebon M.,French Natural History Museum | Zazzo A.,French Natural History Museum | Reiche I.,CNRS Laboratory of Molecular and Structural Archaeology | Reiche I.,Rathgen Research Laboratory
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2014

Bones and teeth are highly hierarchically structured and hererogeneous materials, and post mortem processes can reinforce this heterogeneity. It is therefore important to consider this heterogeneity to better understand diagenetic processes. In this study, ATR-FTIR mapping was applied to several heated and un-heated archaeological samples, and to similar modern references in order to test the potential of this method. ATR-FTIR mapping can provide spatially resolved information on alteration state of mineral and organic matter. This technique allowed to describe the spatial distribution of organic and mineral matter preservation in unheated Palaeolithic bones (Bize-Tournal, France) characterized by a better preservation in the centre of the cortical bone. Spatial variations in the chemical composition of an archaeological heated bone (Abri Pataud, France) compared to a modern reference suggested taphonomical uptake of carbonate in the most external part. This pattern could correspond to a process of re-carbonatation of the calcined mineral matter in the outermost part of the sample due to combustion in a CO2 rich atmosphere. FTIR-ATR is a powerful tool that allows for identifying and characterizing local heterogeneities in bone preservation. This technique open new prospects to reconstruct the taphonomical history of ancient samples. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Querner P.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Querner P.,Rathgen Research Laboratory | Simon S.,Rathgen Research Laboratory | Morelli M.,Kunsthistorisches Museum mit MVK und O and TM wissenschaftliche Anstalt offentlichen Rechts | Furenkranz S.,Museum of Ethnology Vienna
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2013

Since the 1980s the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been applied in museums, historic houses and archives to reduce the application of pesticides and damage to historic objects. Insect pests such as the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), drugstore beetle (Stegobium paniceum), different Attagenus and Anthrenus species or the common furniture beetle (Anobium punctatum) have been known as museum pests for a long time, having caused major damage to the collections of natural or cultural history. The monitoring (regular inspection) with sticky blunder and pheromone traps plays a major role in IPM to detect an infestation and to locate damaged objects. The results of a monitoring in 2010 in ten museums in Berlin of the Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz and the Museum of Ethnology, Vienna, the Austrian Theatre Museum and six collections of the Museum of Fine Arts, Vienna, are presented. The most common pests found in both cities were webbing clothes moths (T. bisselliella), the drugstore beetle (S. paniceum), the varied carpet beetle (Anthrenus (Nathrenus) verbasci) and silverfish (Lepisma saccharina). The khapra beetle (Trogoderma angustum) and the brown carpet beetle (Attagenus smirnovi), both common pests in homes and museums in Berlin, were not yet found in Vienna. A. smirnovi may be replaced in Vienna by the ecologically similar species, the black carpet beetle (Attagenus unicolor). Four wood destroying pests were found in the study, Nicobium castaneum in Berlin and the common furniture beetle (A. punctatum), Hexarthrum exiguum and the powderpost beetle (Lyctus brunneus) in Vienna. The distribution of these species, other insect pests and the success of the IPM programs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Baldauf P.,Gynaecology | Tonnes R.,Gynaecology | Tonnes R.,Rathgen Research Laboratory | Simon S.,Rathgen Research Laboratory | David M.,Gynaecology Clinic
Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde | Year: 2014

A report on the hysteroscopic removal of a Gräfenberg ring after almost fifty years in utero. In addition to the differential diagnostic considerations, the medical history aspects of this case are particularly interesting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.


Gomez-Sanchez E.,Rathgen Research Laboratory | Kunz S.,Rathgen Research Laboratory | Simon S.,Rathgen Research Laboratory
Spectroscopy Europe | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of attenuated total reflection/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FT-IR) for the characterization of the constituent materials of the magnetic tape at the Music Archive of the Ethnological Museum in Berlin, Germany. Investigations were conducted to identify and characterize the most endangered materials of the Archive's collection and evaluate their state of conservation. The derived information from the investigations helped in the development of a prioritized digitization strategy within the Music Archive of the Ethnological Museum. Other Archives were expected to be able to use the results of these investigations to design their own material-based digitization workflow due to the availability of an online tool. A systematic and representative sampling procedure was also designed within the framework of ILKAR to acquire a good impression of the most common and the most endangered and damaged materials.

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