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Englewood, CO, United States

Rehman S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Choi H.-R.,Raspberry | Jamil M.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Yun S.J.,Chonbuk National University
Pakistan Journal of Botany

Black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) seed is covered with hard seed coat and enveloped in an endospermic layer. Seeds failed to germinate without scarification and stratification, suggesting that seeds exhibit profound both physical and physiological dormancy. Scarification with sulfuric acid for 15 minutes and stratification for 45 days produced best results. The application of GA was not effective in alleviating dormancy compared to GA-untreated seeds. R. coreanus seeds in contrast to other plant species, in which radicle emerges first during germination process, seed coat cleaved at the center or little more toward radicle end and whole seed emerged out (cotyledons plus radicle) as if the chick hatched out of egg. Normally seed germination is defined based on the radicle emergence but in case of R. coreanus due to lack of radicle emergence seed was considered germinated when half or more than half of the seed (radicle plus cotyledons and some time endospermic layer) emerged from seed coat. Furthermore, seed germination was completed in two steps, (1) cracking of seed coat and (2) breaking of endospermic layer. The rupturing of endospermic layer was critical in emergence of cotyledons or radicle. The role of ABA in breaking the seed coat and endospermic layer and effect of H2SO4 vs. manual scarification is discussed in this article. Source

Kim B.,Raspberry | Kim A.-J.,Sempio Foods Co. | Shin J.-K.,Jeonju University
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology

The purpose of this study was to investigate the inactivation effect of intense pulsed light (IPL) on Micrococcus roseus, an irradiation-resistant bacterium isolated from laver, and the commercial feasibility of this sterilization method on dried laver. The inactivation of M. roseus in cultivated plates increased with increasing light intensity and treatment time. Approximately 6.6 log CFU/mL reduction of the cell viability was achieved with IPL treatment for 3 min at 1,000 V of light intensity, tailing was not shown. In addition, the inactivation rate of M. roseus increased with increasing pulse number at same light intensity and treatment time. The killing efficiency for M. roseus increased with by decreasing the distance between the light source and the sample surface. Source

Raspberry | Date: 2014-04-16


Raspberry | Date: 2014-03-28

Live oysters.

Raspberry | Date: 2010-02-26

A modular accessory system is supportable on a vertical surface such as a wall, an office divider, or the like and includes a framework that support panels and/or functional modules to provide a desired appearance and/or functions for use in an area. The panels and modules are repositionable, and some may be oriented in two or more different orientations on the framework. Engaging members are provided at spaced intervals along each panel and module, with additional engaging members provided at spaced intervals along the framework. The engaging members along the framework releasably engage the engaging members on the panels and modules to support them on the framework. In addition, brackets may be coupled to the framework in either a vertical or horizontal orientation, such as alongside any panel or module, to support accessories thereon. Electrical wiring may be routed through the framework to supply certain panels, modules, or accessories.

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