Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd

Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd

Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

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Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd. | Morganroth J.,eResearch Technology | Shah D.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd.
Drug Safety | Year: 2013

The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) represents a major milestone in oncology. However, their use has been found to be associated with serious toxicities that impinge on various vital organs including the heart. Sixteen TKIs have been approved for use in oncology as of 30 September 2012, and a large number of others are in development or under regulatory review. Cardiovascular safety of medicinal products is a major public health issue that has concerned all the stakeholders. This review focuses on three specific cardiovascular safety aspects of TKIs, namely their propensity to induce QT interval prolongation, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and hypertension (both systemic and pulmonary). Analyses of information in drug labels, the data submitted to the regulatory authorities and the published literature show that a number of TKIs are associated with these undesirable effects. Whereas LV dysfunction and systemic hypertension are on-target effects related to the inhibition of ligand-related signalling pathways, QT interval prolongation appears to be an off-target class III electrophysiologic effect, possibly related to the presence of a fluorine-based pharmacophore. If not adequately managed, these cardiovascular effects significantly increase the morbidity and mortality in a population already at high risk. Hitherto, the QT effect of most QT-prolonging TKIs (except lapatinib, nilotinib, sunitinib and vandetanib) is relatively mild at clinical doses and has not led to appreciable morbidity clinically. In contrast, LV dysfunction and untreated hypertension have resulted in significant morbidity. Inevitably, dilemmas arise in determining the risk/benefit of a TKI therapy in an individual patient who develops any of these effects following the treatment of the TKI-sensitive cancer. QT interval prolongation, hypertension and LV dysfunction can be managed effectively by using reliable methods of measurement and careful monitoring of patients whose clinical management requires optimisation by a close collaboration between an oncologist and a cardiologist, an evolving subspecialty referred to as cardio-oncology. Despite their potential adverse clinical impact, the effects of TKIs on hypertension and LV function are generally inadequately characterised during their development. As has been the case with QT liability of drugs, there is now a persuasive case for a regulatory requirement to study TKIs systematically for these effects. Furthermore, since most of these novel drugs are studied in trials with relatively small sample sizes and approved on an expedited basis, there is also a compelling case for their effective pharmacovigilance and on-going reassessment of their risk/benefit after approval. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Shah D.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd | Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd | Morganroth J.,eResearch Technology
Drug Safety | Year: 2013

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment of certain forms of cancers, raising hopes for many patients with otherwise unresponsive tumours. While these agents are generally well tolerated, clinical experience with them has highlighted their unexpected association with serious toxic effects on various organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, thyroid, skin, blood coagulation, gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. Many of these toxic effects result from downstream inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor or epidermal growth factor signalling in cells of normal organs. Many of these undesirable effects such as hypertension, hypothyroidism, skin reactions and possibly proteinuria are on-target effects. Since tyrosine kinases are widely distributed with specific functional roles in different organs, this association is not too surprising. Various studies suggest that the development of these on-target effects indicates clinically desirable and effective inhibition of the corresponding ligand-mediated receptor linked with oncogenesis. This is reflected as improved efficacy in the subgroup of patients who develop these on-target adverse effects compared with those who do not. Inevitably, issues arise with respect to the regulatory assessment of efficacy and risk/benefit of the TKIs as well as the clinical approach to managing patients who develop these effects. Routine subgroup analysis of efficacy data from clinical trials (patients with and without on-target toxicity) may enable more effective clinical use of TKIs since (i) discontinuing or reducing the dose of the TKI has a negative impact if the tumour is TKI-responsive; and (ii) it is usually possible to manage these undesirable on-target effects with conventional clinical approaches. Prospective studies are needed to investigate this proposition further. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd | Morganroth J.,eResearch Technology | Shah D.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd
Drug Safety | Year: 2013

The introduction of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in clinical oncology has transformed the treatment of certain forms of cancers. As of 31 March 2013, 18 such agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 15 of these also by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and a large number of others are in development or under regulatory review. Unexpectedly, however, their use has been found to be associated with serious toxic effects on a number of vital organs including the liver. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity has resulted in withdrawal from the market of many widely used drugs and is a major public health issue that continues to concern all the stakeholders. This review focuses on hepatotoxic potential of TKIs. The majority of TKIs approved to date are reported to induce hepatic injury. Five of these (lapatinib, pazopanib, ponatinib, regorafenib and sunitinib) are sufficiently potent in this respect as to require a boxed label warning. Onset of TKI-induced hepatotoxicity is usually within the first 2 months of initiating treatment, but may be delayed, and is usually reversible. Fatality from TKI-induced hepatotoxicity is uncommon compared to hepatotoxic drugs in other classes but may lead to long-term consequences such as cirrhosis. Patients should be carefully monitored for TKI-induced hepatotoxicity, the management of which requires individually tailored reappraisal of the risk/benefit. The risk is usually manageable by dose adjustment or a switch to a suitable alternative TKI. Confirmation of TKI-induced hepatotoxicity can present challenges in the presence of hepatic metastasis and potential drug interactions. Its diagnosis in a patient with TKI-sensitive cancer requires great care if therapy with the TKI suspected to be causal is to be modified or interrupted as a result. Post-marketing experience with drugs such as imatinib, lapatinib and sorafenib suggests that the hepatotoxic safety of all the TKIs requires diligent surveillance. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd. | Morganroth J.,eResearch Technology
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidance ICH E14 provides recommendations, focusing on a clinical 'thorough QT/QTc (TQT) study', to evaluate the QT liability of a drug during its development. An Implementation Working Group (IWG) was also established to assist the sponsors with any uncertainties and clarify any ambiguities. In April 2012, the IWG updated its June 2008 version of the Questions and Answers document to address additional issues. These include the gender of the study population, a reasonable approach to evaluating QTc changes in late stage clinical development and the recommended approach to correcting the measured QT interval. This commentary provides our observations and, when appropriate, recommendations, on these issues. We review briefly evidence that suggests that (i) the greater QT effect observed in females is not entirely related to differences in drug exposure and (ii) the Fridericia correction of measured QT interval is adequate for a majority of TQT studies. Until further evidence suggests otherwise, we recommend balanced gender representation in TQT studies, unless warranted otherwise, and for positive studies, subgroup analysis of key data by common demographic variables including the gender and ethnicity. We provide a general scheme for ECG monitoring in late phase clinical trials and consider that while intensive monitoring and centralized reading of ECGs in late phase clinical trials is the norm when a TQT study is positive, there are other circumstances that also call for high quality ECG reading. Therefore, locally read ECGs should only be acceptable as long as accurate high quality ECG data can be guaranteed. © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.


Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd | Morganroth J.,eResearch Technology
Drug Safety | Year: 2012

The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidance note E14 requires a thorough QT (TQT) study to characterize proactively the potential of a new drug to affect cardiac repolarization, as determined by prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc) interval. A typical TQT study is reviewed herein with a discussion on various practical issues concerning the use of a supratherapeutic dose, establishing assay sensitivity, the application of QT rate-correction methods, and restricting analyses of ECGs and plasma samples to key timepoints.We then discuss, and provide examples of, how multiple ascending dose (MAD) study protocols can be modified to integrate robust ECG monitoring and analyses to gather key information provided by a TQT study. Among the main advantages of this approach are the ability to study the ECG effects of a wide range of doses to the maximum tolerated doses, eliminating routine analyses at unnecessary timepoints, making early go-no-go decisions, making phase II studies more efficient and, if necessary, being able to implement rigorous ECG monitoring in populations and pivotal studies of regulatory interest. If clear evidence for the presence or absence of QTc effect is found, the data from a modified MAD study may support a request for a waiver from the requirement to conduct a TQT study. In the event that a TQT study is considered unnecessary, there are obvious significant savings without compromising collection of vital safety data. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.


Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd | Morganroth J.,eResearch Technology
Drug Safety | Year: 2015

We previously reviewed the cardiovascular safety of 16 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), approved for use in oncology as of 30 September 2012. Since then, the indications for some of them have been widened and an additional nine TKIs have also been approved as of 30 April 2015. Eight of these nine are indicated for use in oncology and one (nintedanib) for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This report is an update on the cardiovascular safety of those 16 TKIs, including the post-marketing data concerning their pro-arrhythmic effects, and reviews the cardiovascular safety of the nine new TKIs approved since (afatinib, cabozantinib, ceritinib, dabrafenib, ibrutinib, lenvatinib, nintedanib, ponatinib, and trametinib). As before, we focus on specific aspects of cardiovascular safety, namely their potential to induce QT interval prolongation, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and hypertension but now also summarise the risks of arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs) associated with these agents. Of the newer TKIs, cabozantinib and ceritinib have been shown to induce a mild to moderate degree of QTc interval prolongation while cardiac dysfunction has been reported with the use of afatinib, dabrafenib, lenvatinib, ponatinib and trametinib. The label for axitinib was revised to include a new association with cardiac dysfunction. Hypertension is associated with cabozantinib, lenvatinib, nintedanib, ponatinib and trametinib. Ponatinib, within 10 months of its approval in December 2012, required voluntary (temporary) suspension of its marketing until significant safety revisions (restricted indication, additional warnings and precautions about the risk of arterial occlusion and thromboembolic events and amended dose) were made to its label. Compared with the previous 16 TKIs, more of the recently introduced TKIs are associated with the risk of LV dysfunction, and fewer with QT prolongation. Available data on morbidity and mortality associated with TKIs, together with post-marketing experience with lapatinib and ponatinib, emphasise the need for effective pharmacovigilance and ongoing re-assessment of their risk/benefit after approval of these novel agents. If not adequately managed, these cardiovascular effects significantly decrease the quality of life and increase the morbidity and mortality in a population already at high risk. Evidence accumulated over the last decade suggests that their clinical benefit, although worthwhile, is modest and extends only to progression-free survival and complete response without any effect on overall survival. During uncontrolled use in routine clinical practice, their risk/benefit is likely to be inferior to that perceived from highly controlled clinical trials. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd. | Smith R.L.,Imperial College London
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2015

Phenoconversion transiently converts genotypic extensive metabolizers (EMs) into phenotypic poor metabolizers (PMs) of drugs, potentially with corresponding changes in clinical response. This phenomenon, typically resulting from coadministration of medications that inhibit certain drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), is especially well documented for enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family. Nonclinical evidence gathered over the last two decades also strongly implicates elevated levels of some proinflammatory cytokines, released during inflammation, in down-regulation of drug metabolism, especially by certain DMEs of the P450 family, thereby potentially causing transient phenoconversion. Clinically, phenoconversion of NAT2, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 has been documented in inflammatory conditions associated with elevated cytokines, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, cancer, and liver disease. The potential of other inflammatory conditions to cause phenoconversion has not been studied but experimental and anecdotal clinical evidence supports infectioninduced down-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9 as well. Collectively, the evidence supports a hypothesis that certain inflammatory conditions associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines may cause phenoconversion of certain DMEs. Since inflammatory conditions associated with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines are highly prevalent, phenoconversion of genotypic EM patients into transient phenotypic PMs may be more frequent than appreciated. Since drug pharmacokinetics, and therefore the clinical response, is influenced by DME phenotype rather than genotype per se, phenoconversion (whatever its cause) can have a significant impact on the analysis and interpretation of genotype-focused clinical outcome association studies. There is a risk that focusing on genotype alone may miss important associations between clinical outcomes and DME phenotypes, thus compromising future prospects of personalized medicine. © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd | Smith R.L.,Imperial College London
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Phenoconversion is a phenomenon that converts genotypic extensive metabolizers (EMs) into phenotypic poor metabolizers (PMs) of drugs, thereby modifying their clinical response to that of genotypic PMs. Phenoconversion, usually resulting from nongenetic extrinsic factors, has a significant impact on the analysis and interpretation of genotype-focused clinical outcome association studies and personalizing therapy in routine clinical practice. The high phenotypic variability or genotype-phenotype mismatch, frequently observed due to phenoconversion within the genotypic EM population, means that the real number of phenotypic PM subjects may be greater than predicted from their genotype alone, because many genotypic EMs would be phenotypically PMs. If the phenoconverted population with genotype-phenotype mismatch, most extensively studied for CYP2D6, is as large as the evidence suggests, there is a real risk that genotype-focused association studies, typically correlating only the genotype with clinical outcomes, may miss clinically strong pharmacogenetic associations, thus compromising any potential for advancing the prospects of personalized medicine. This review focuses primarily on co-medication-induced phenoconversion and discusses potential approaches to rectify some of the current shortcomings. It advocates routine phenotyping of subjects in genotype-focused association studies and proposes a new nomenclature to categorize study populations. Even with strong and reliable data associating patients' genotypes with clinical outcome(s), there are problems clinically in applying this knowledge into routine pharmacotherapy because of potential genotype-phenotype mismatch. Drug-induced phenoconversion during routine clinical practice remains a major public health issue. Therefore, the principal challenges facing personalized medicine, which need to be addressed, include identification of the following factors: (i) drugs that are susceptible to phenoconversion; (ii) co-medications that can cause phenoconversion; and (iii) dosage amendments that need to be applied during and following phenoconversion. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.


Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Inter-ethnic differences in drug responses have been well documented. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation is a major safety concern and therefore, regulatory authorities recommend a clinical thorough QT study (TQT) to investigate new drugs for their QT-prolonging potential. A positive study, determined by breach of a preset regulatory threshold, significantly influences late phase clinical trials by requiring intense ECG monitoring. A few studies that are currently available, although not statistically conclusive at present, question the assumption that ethnicity of the study population may not influence the outcome of a TQT study. Collective consideration of available pharmacogenetic and clinical information suggests that there may be inter-ethnic differences in QT-prolonging effects of drugs and that Caucasians may be more sensitive than other populations. The information also suggest s that (a) these differences may depend on the QT-prolonging potency of the drug and (b) exposure-response (E-R) analysis may be more sensitive than simple changes in QTc interval in unmasking this difference. If the QT response in Caucasians is generally found to be more intense than in non-Caucasians, there may be significant regulatory implications for domestic acceptance of data from a TQT study conducted in foreign populations. However, each drug will warrant an individual consideration when extrapolating the results of a TQT studyfrom one ethnic population to another and the ultimate clinical relevance of any difference. Further adequately designed and powered studies, investigating the pharmacologic properties and E-R relationships of additional drugs with different potencies, are needed in Caucasians, Oriental/Asian and African populations before firm conclusions can be drawn. © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.


Shah R.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd | Shah D.R.,Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

The notion of personalized medicine has developed from the application of the discipline of pharmacogenetics to clinical medicine. Although the clinical relevance of genetically-determined inter-individual differences in pharmacokinetics is poorly understood, and the genotype-phenotype association data on clinical outcomes often inconsistent, officially approved drug labels frequently include pharmacogenetic information concerning the safety and/or efficacy of a number of drugs and refer to the availability of the pharmacogenetic test concerned. Regulatory authorities differ in their approach to these issues. Evidence emerging subsequently has generally revealed the pharmacogenetic information included in the label to be premature. Revised drugs labels, together with a flurry of other collateral activities, have raised public expectations of personalized medicine, promoted as 'the right drug at the right dose the first time.' These expectations place the prescribing physician in a dilemma and at risk of litigation, especially when evidence-based information on genotype-related dosing schedules is to all intent and purposes non-existent and guidelines, intended to improve the clinical utility of available pharmacogenetic information or tests, distance themselves from any responsibility. Lack of efficacy or an adverse drug reaction is frequently related to non-genetic factors. Phenoconversion, arising from drug interactions, poses another often neglected challenge to any potential success of personalized medicine by mimicking genetically-determined enzyme deficiency. A more realistic promotion of personalized medicine should acknowledge current limitations and emphasize that pharmacogenetic testing can only improve the likelihood of diminishing a specific toxic effect or increasing the likelihood of a beneficial effect and that application of pharmacogenetics to clinical medicine cannot adequately predict drug response in individual patients. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

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