RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology

Moscow, Russia

RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology

Moscow, Russia

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Uvarov A.V.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Pedobiologia | Year: 2017

It is generally accepted that populations of most species experience some level of density dependence; however, this has rarely been shown for soil-dwelling invertebrate species, in particular for earthworms. Experimental data, mostly obtained at high laboratory densities, suggest intense intraspecific competition for resources and/or living space and density-dependent dynamics in earthworm populations, irrespective of their ecological group affiliation. In the present study performed in large field microcosms, I investigated whether density-dependent responses occur within the earthworm density gradients more realistic for the natural sites. Five lumbricid species from epigeic (Dendrobaena octaedra, Lumbricus rubellus), endogeic (Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa) and anecic (Lumbricus terrestris) ecological groups were tested. Soil systems populated with earthworm monocultures in large (20-L) microcosms were exposed in a beech-oak forest for 4.5 months; each species was represented by two (L. terrestris) or three treatments forming gradients of increasing density. In two endogeic species, manifold and generally similar density-dependent responses (a retardation of growth, maturation and reproduction rates, but higher mortality rates with density increase) were revealed, likely explained by spatial competition rather than by direct food competition. In each of epigeic species density-dependent responses were less variable and more species-specific. In contrast to endogeics, direct food competition was presumably a more important cause of density-dependence. In L. terrestris no significant density-dependent responses in adult earthworms were revealed; however, they need to be further investigated in relation to the age and territorial behaviour of individual earthworms. Importantly, in any earthworm species the density variations in the reproducing generation had significant consequences for the advancing generation, affecting either the numbers or/and the size (individual weight) of the cocoons produced. It is suggested that an underestimation of density-dependent processes may cause inaccurate estimates of the activities of local lumbricid populations. © 2017 Elsevier GmbH

Lister A.M.,Natural History Museum in London | Sher A.V.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Science | Year: 2015

Mammoths provide a detailed example of species origins and dispersal, but understanding has been impeded by taxonomic confusion, especially in North America. The Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi was thought to have evolved in North America from a more primitive Eurasian immigrant. The earliest American mammoths (1.5 million years ago), however, resemble the advanced Eurasian M. trogontherii that crossed the Bering land bridge around that time, giving rise directly to M. columbi. Woolly mammoth M. primigenius later evolved in Beringia and spread into Europe and North America, leading to a diversity of morphologies as it encountered endemic M. trogontherii and M. columbi, respectively. In North America, this included intermediates ("M.jeffersonii"), suggesting introgression of M. primigenius with M. columbi. The lineage illustrates the dynamic interplay of local adaptation, dispersal, and gene flow in the evolution of a widely distributed species complex.

Levin B.A.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2010

The ontogeny of the larvae and juveniles of the common roach, Rutilus rutilus, was accelerated and retarded via treatment with the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T 3), and thiourea. This treatment resulted in differential timing of scale formation. Development of squamation was earlier in accelerated fish but delayed in retarded fish compared with a control fish. A drastic shift in the number of lateral line scales (LL) resulted. Instead of a typical range of LL, retarded fish had an increased LL compared to the control as well as for the species as a whole, 47-71 vs 41-48, while accelerated fish had reduced LL: 38-44 vs 41-48. The mechanism of this drastic change in LL was related to developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape (heterochrony). The number of scales obtained experimentally was correlated to the body length at which scales first appeared. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Orlova-Bienkowskaja M.J.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Biological Invasions | Year: 2014

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), is a pest of ash native to Asia. This major stem borer has killed millions of ash trees in North America. It was first found in Europe in 2003 in the city of Moscow. Now it is rapidly spreading in European Russia. In 2012 A. planipennis was found in the Tula, Kaluga, and Smolensk regions. A survey of green plantations in 22 localities in 2013 has revealed that A. planipennis occurs also in the Tver, Orel, Voronezh, Tambov, and Yaroslavl regions. It occurs 230 km northeast, 350 km southeast, and 460 km south from Moscow. Most ashes in the Moscow region, both alien American Fraxinus pennsylvanica and the indiginous European ash Fraxinus excelsior, are dying or already dead. Thousands of trees in other regions are seriously damaged. The pest will cross the western border of Russia soon. It represents a serious threat for ashes in other European countries. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

The invasive fish rotan or Amur sleeper, Perccottus glenii (Perciformes, Odontobutidae), arrived in Western Ukraine during the stocking of commercial cyprinid fish in the 1960s. Three periods were identified in its expansion. Period I: during the first two decades post-arrival, the fish was restricted to the upper section of a local river basin. Period II: rotan penetrated the adjacent river basins and over the following two decades, it rapidly self-distributed over huge distances, using rivers as long-distance, one-way natural corridors (natural conveyors). This expansion resulted in the invasion of many European river systems including the Danube, Dniester, western part of the Dnieper basin, Southern Bug (all belonging to Black Sea basin), and the Vistula (Baltic Sea basin). During colonization, rotan was found in Lviv, Zakarpatie, Volynskaya, Povno, Ivano-Frankovsk, Chernovtsy and Khmelnitskiy provinces of Western Ukraine, as well as in territories of south-western Belarus, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, and Moldova. This invader demonstrated comparatively rapid expansion from riverheads to downstream river mouths, but slower or negligible expansion upstream in tributaries. This example of the West-Ukrainian centre of distribution demonstrates the significance of upper parts of river basins for rapid distribution of this species, as well as the important function of rivers in crossing country borders. Period III relates to the period from approx. 2005 to the present day. During this period, perceived to be the longest in terms of colonization, its invaded range extends to tributaries and isolated water bodies filling gaps in areas between already colonized main rivers. Rotan did not reach high densities in the main river channels or deep, well-oxygenated lakes because of the presence of native fish predators. However, this alien species did form numerous dense populations in shallow lentic water bodies. The expansion of rotan may lead to adverse economic impacts upon European aquaculture farms, as well as predictable, ecological consequences for populations of some native European aquatic animals including invertebrates, fish and amphibians. Rotan has the potential to also influence adjacent terrestrial ecosystems. A review of rotan and native species interactions is presented. © 2013 The Author(s).

Orlova-Bienkowskaja M.J.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2013

The harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) is recorded in Belgorod oblast. This species has estab lished itself in 38 countries of North America, South America, Europe, and Africa in the last 24 years. Mass propagation of this beetle in a number of regions has led to the decline of local ladybird species and other insects. The harlequin ladybird is a significant pest of fruit and wine production. H. axyridis is a nuisance that infests houses in large numbers when searching for overwintering sites. Hungry beetles bite people. The fluid excreted by these beetles has a foul odor, stains furniture and walls, and causes an allergy. The harlequin ladybird should be included in the list of quarantine species of the Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Supervision of Russia. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.

Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis is a serious pest of ash. It was accidentally introduced to Moscow in the 1990s. In May 2013, ashes in four cities located to the northwest of Moscow were examined. In Zelenograd (20 km from Moscow), Klin (70 km from Moscow), and Konakovo (100 km from Moscow), most of the ashes have been already killed or severely damaged by the pest. Obviously, within the next several years, ashes will be entirely eliminated from green plantations of these cities. Ashes examined in Tver (145 km from Moscow) are not damaged. The European range of the pest has significantly expanded to the northwest. Its border now crosses Tver oblast. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Dgebuadze Y.Y.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2014

This brief review includes information on recent important results of studies of invasions carried out first of all in Russia and adjacent territories and of species which are alien to many regions of the world. Some of these results were presented at international symposia "Invasions of Alien Species in Holarctic." The selection and description of alien species that can be priority targets for studies and control are proposed as a promising approach. Some terminology issues are discussed. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Pseudosida szalayi Daday, 1898 is redescribed on the basis on type material from Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and other materials from India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, East and South China, and Far East of Russia (Lower Amur River basin). The investigation of intra- and interpopulational morphological variability has allowed coming to the conclusion about the conspecificity of specimens from different regions and occurrence of the only species, P. szalayi, in East and South Asia. The male of the species is described in detail for the first time. The first discovered northernmost localities of the species in the Lower Amur River basin are far separated from others and may have a relict status. While probably, only one species of the genus occurs in East and South Asia, the taxonomic status of African pseudosidas known under the names "P. szalayi" and "P. bidentata" remains uncertain. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press.

Korovchinsky N.M.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Journal of Limnology | Year: 2013

The history of Cladocera studies in South-East Asia is reviewed, beginning from the early start of explorations in the end of the 19th century by J. Richard and T. Stingelin. In the first half of the 20th century, extensive research was carried out by V. Brehm, who investigated material collected by the Wallacea-Expedition and the Deutschen Limnologischen Sunda-Expedition. Later, in the 1970-1980s, C.H. Fernando and collaborators, besides a few other researchers, provided a new series of regional studies of the cladoceran faunas together with the systematic revisions of some taxa from tropical Asia. Then and up to present, investigations of the Cladocera have concentrated in Thailand and many species have been revised and described as new to science. In total, 298 taxa of species rank have been recorded in SE Asia but only comparatively few of them (67 taxa; 22.5%) can be regarded good species, of which the valid status has been confirmed by recent studies, while others are synonyms (68; 22.8%) or taxa of uncertain taxonomic status, including those which definitely represent complexes of species (163; 54.7%). Most total taxa of species level and good species are known from Thailand (155 and 54, respectively), followed by Malaysia (plus Singapore), Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia in this respect (70- 119 total taxa and 23-33 good species respectively). Laos, Burma (Myanmar) and Brunei remain practically unexplored. Only good species were used for the zoogeographic analysis. Of them, about a quarter is known only in SE Asia but more species are distributed in tropical/subtropical/temperate Asia and Australia, others in tropics/subtropics of the eastern hemisphere (17.9%) or even wider. Tropical species, constituting the primary part of the cladoceran fauna of SE Asia, can penetrate the neighboring subtropical and southern temperate zones to a different degree. Only a small fraction of species (7 or 10.5%) here are of more or less northern origin, they are distributed predominantly in the subtropical/southern temperate or in the northern boreal latitudes. Few species are suggested to penetrate SE Asia from the north using the Mekong river and its tributaries. Generally, the cladocerans of SE Asia are poorly known and only continuous extensive taxonomic studies would improve this situation.

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