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The Kurchatov Institute i.e. National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"; 1991-2010: Роcсийский научный центр "Курчатовский Институт" — Russian Scientific Centre "Kurchatov Institute") is Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy. In the Soviet Union it was known as I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy , abbreviated KIAE . The Kurchatov Institute is located at 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow. It is named after Igor Kurchatov.Until 1955 known under a secret name "Laboratory No. 2 of the USSR Academy of science", the Kurchatov Institute was founded in 1943 with the initial purpose of developing nuclear weapons. The majority of Soviet nuclear reactors were designed in the Institute, including the on-site F-1, which was the first non-American nuclear reactor to sustain criticality. Since 1955 it was also the host for major scientific experimental work in the fields of thermonuclear fusion and plasma physics. In particular, the first tokamak systems were developed there, the most successful of them being T-3 and its larger version T-4. T-4 was tested in 1968 in Novosibirsk, conducting the first quasistationary thermonuclear fusion reaction ever. Until 1991, the Ministry of Atomic Energy oversaw the Kurchatov Institute's administration. After the transformation into the State Scientific Center in November 1991, the Institute became subordinated directly to the Russian Government. According to the Institute's Charter, the Institute's president is appointed by the prime minister based on recommendations from Rosatom. In February 2005 Mikhail Kovalchuk was appointed director of the institute.In February 2007 the Kurchatov Institute won the tender to be the main organization coordinating efforts in nanotechnology in Russia. Wikipedia.

Ivanov Yu.B.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics

Transverse-mass spectra, their inverse slopes, and mean transverse masses in relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei are analyzed in a wide range of incident energies, 2.7 GeV ≤sNN≤ 39 GeV. The analysis is performed within the three-fluid model, employing three different equations of state (EoS): a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with the first-order phase transition, and an EoS with a smooth crossover transition into deconfined state. Calculations show that inverse slopes and mean transverse masses of all the species (with the exception of antibaryons within the hadronic scenario) exhibit steplike behavior similar to that observed for mesons and protons in available experimental data. This steplike behavior takes place for all considered EoSs and results from the freeze-out dynamics rather than being a signal of the deconfinement transition. A good reproduction of experimental inverse slopes and mean transverse masses for light species (up to protons) is achieved within all the considered scenarios. The freeze-out parameters are precisely the same as those used for reproduction of particle yields in previous papers of this series. This became possible because the freeze-out stage is not completely equilibrium. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source

Pustovitov V.D.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics

Energy approach to the problem of plasma stability against the resistive wall modes (RWMs) in tokamaks is proposed in a form allowing study of the fast and conventional slow modes on the same basis. A general dispersion relation for RWMs is derived and analyzed. It is shown that the standard thin-wall model may strongly underestimate their growth rate. Two opposite cases are compared, with a skin length much larger and much smaller than the wall thickness. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kohn V.G.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

The possibility of using a parabolic refractive lens with initial X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, i.e. without a monochromator, is analysed. It is assumed that the measurement time is longer than 0.3 fs, which is the time duration of a coherent pulse (spike). In this case one has to calculate the propagation of a monochromatic wave and then perform an integration of the intensity over the radiation spectrum. Here a general algorithm for calculating the propagation of time-dependent radiation in free space and through various objects is presented. Analytical formulae are derived describing the properties of the monochromatic beam focused by a system of one and two lenses. Computer simulations show that the European XFEL pulses can be focused with maximal efficiency, i.e. as for a monochromatic wave. This occurs even for nanofocusing lenses. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved. Source

Pustovitov V.D.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physics of Plasmas

Magnetic interaction of the plasma perturbations with the nearby resistive wall is considered as a resistive wall mode (RWM) problem, but with two essential differences from the traditional thin-wall approach. First, the wall is treated as magnetically thick, which means that the skin depth is not assumed larger than the wall thickness. Second, the plasma is allowed to enter the region where the RWM must be deeply unstable without rotation. The latter corresponds to the plasma operation above the no-wall stability limit demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak [E. J. Strait, Phys. Plasmas 11, 2505 (2004)]. It is shown that the rotational stabilization observed in these experiments can be reproduced in this model if the mode is forced to rotate with a frequency above a critical level. The analytical estimates show that this effect (absent in the model based on the thin-wall approximation) is strong at realistic parameters. The model also predicts that the locking of the rotationally stabilized mode gives rise to instability with a growth rate much larger than its thin-wall estimate. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source

Ivanov Y.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Global evolution of the matter in relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei and the resulting global freeze-out parameters are analyzed in a wide range of incident energies 2.7GeV≤sNN≤39GeV. The analysis is performed within the three-fluid model employing three different equations of state (EoS): a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with the first-order phase transition and that with a smooth crossover transition. Global freeze-out parameters deduced from experimental data within the statistical model are well reproduced within the crossover scenario. The 1st-order-transition scenario is slightly less successful. The worst reproduction is found within the purely hadronic scenario. These findings make a link between the EoS and results of the statistical model, and indicate that deconfinement onset occurs at sNN≳5GeV. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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