RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute

Moscow, Russia

RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute

Moscow, Russia

The Kurchatov Institute i.e. National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"; 1991-2010: Роcсийский научный центр "Курчатовский Институт" — Russian Scientific Centre "Kurchatov Institute") is Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy. In the Soviet Union it was known as I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy , abbreviated KIAE . The Kurchatov Institute is located at 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow. It is named after Igor Kurchatov.Until 1955 known under a secret name "Laboratory No. 2 of the USSR Academy of science", the Kurchatov Institute was founded in 1943 with the initial purpose of developing nuclear weapons. The majority of Soviet nuclear reactors were designed in the Institute, including the on-site F-1, which was the first non-American nuclear reactor to sustain criticality. Since 1955 it was also the host for major scientific experimental work in the fields of thermonuclear fusion and plasma physics. In particular, the first tokamak systems were developed there, the most successful of them being T-3 and its larger version T-4. T-4 was tested in 1968 in Novosibirsk, conducting the first quasistationary thermonuclear fusion reaction ever. Until 1991, the Ministry of Atomic Energy oversaw the Kurchatov Institute's administration. After the transformation into the State Scientific Center in November 1991, the Institute became subordinated directly to the Russian Government. According to the Institute's Charter, the Institute's president is appointed by the prime minister based on recommendations from Rosatom. In February 2005 Mikhail Kovalchuk was appointed director of the institute.In February 2007 the Kurchatov Institute won the tender to be the main organization coordinating efforts in nanotechnology in Russia. Wikipedia.

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Biryukov V.M.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2017

We suggest a formula for the efficiency of a single volume reflection of negatively charged particles in bent crystal planes and compare it to recent experiments at SLAC, MAMI and CERN with electrons and negative pions in the energy range from 0.855 to 150 GeV in Si crystals. We show that Lindhard reversibility rule provides sufficient basis for quantitative understanding of these experiments. © 2016 The Author(s)


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRASUPP-6-2014 | Award Amount: 1.70M | Year: 2015

This CREMLIN proposal is to foster scientific cooperation between the Russian Federation and the European Union in the development and scientific exploitation of large-scale research infrastructures. It has been triggered by the recent so-called megascience projects initiative launched by and in the Russian Federation which is now very actively seeking European integration. The proposed megascience facilities have an enormous potential for the international scientific communities and represent a unique opportunity for the EU to engage in a strong collaborative framework with the Russian Federation. The CREMLIN proposal is a first and path finding step to identify, build and enhance scientific cooperation and strong enduring networks between European research infrastructures and the corresponding megascience facilities to maximize scientific returns. The proposal follows the specific recommendations of an EC Expert Group by devising concrete coordination and support measures for each megascience facility and by developing common best practice and policies on internationalisation and opening. CREMLIN will thus effectively contribute to better connect Russian RIs to the European Research Area.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.24. | Award Amount: 23.40M | Year: 2013

Research accelerators are facing important challenges that must be addressed in the years to come: existing infrastructures are stretched to all performance frontiers, new world-class facilities on the ESFRI roadmap are starting or nearing completion, and strategic decisions are needed for future accelerators and major upgrades in Europe. While current projects concentrate on their specific objectives, EuCARD-2 brings a global view to accelerator research, coordinating a consortium of 40 accelerator laboratories, technology institutes, universities and industry to jointly address common challenges. By promoting complementary expertise, cross-disciplinary fertilisation and a wider sharing of knowledge and technologies throughout academia and with industry, EuCARD-2 significantly enhances multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators. This new project will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science by effectively implementing a distributed accelerator laboratory in Europe. Transnational access will be granted to state-of-the-art test facilities, and joint R&D effort will build upon and exceed that of the ongoing EuCARD project. Researchers will concentrate on a few well-focused themes with very ambitious deliverables: 20 T accelerator magnets, innovative materials for collimation of extreme beams, new high-gradient high-efficiency accelerating systems, and emerging acceleration technologies based on lasers and plasmas. EuCARD-2 will include six networks on strategic topics to reinforce synergies between communities active at all frontiers, extending the scope towards innovation and societal applications. The networks concentrate on extreme beam performance, novel accelerator concepts with outstanding potential, energy efficiency and accelerator applications in the fields of medicine, industry, environment and energy. One network will oversee the whole project to proactively catalyze links to industry and the innovation potential.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 70.14M | Year: 2010

Scientific research is no longer conducted within national boundaries and is becoming increasing dependent on the large-scale analysis of data, generated from instruments or computer simulations housed in trans-national facilities, by using e Infrastructure (distributed computing and storage resources linked by high-performance networks).\nThe 48 month EGI-InSPIRE project will continue the transition to a sustainable pan-European e-Infrastructure started in EGEE-III. It will sustain support for Grids of high-performance and high-throughput computing resources, while seeking to integrate new Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs), i.e. Clouds, SuperComputing, Desktop Grids, etc., as they are required by the European user community. It will establish a central coordinating organisation, EGI.eu, and support the staff throughout Europe necessary to integrate and interoperate individual national grid infrastructures. EGI.eu will provide a coordinating hub for European DCIs, working to bring existing technologies into a single integrated persistent production infrastructure for researchers within the European Research Area.\nEGI-InSPIRE will collect requirements and provide user-support for the current and new (e.g. ESFRI) users. Support will also be given for the current heavy users as they move their critical services and tools from a central support model to ones driven by their own individual communities. The project will define, verify and integrate within the Unified Middleware Distribution, the middleware from external providers needed to access the e-Infrastructure. The operational tools will be extended by the project to support a national operational deployment model, include new DCI technologies in the production infrastructure and the associated accounting information to help define EGIs future revenue model.


Ivanov Yu.B.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

Transverse-mass spectra, their inverse slopes, and mean transverse masses in relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei are analyzed in a wide range of incident energies, 2.7 GeV ≤sNN≤ 39 GeV. The analysis is performed within the three-fluid model, employing three different equations of state (EoS): a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with the first-order phase transition, and an EoS with a smooth crossover transition into deconfined state. Calculations show that inverse slopes and mean transverse masses of all the species (with the exception of antibaryons within the hadronic scenario) exhibit steplike behavior similar to that observed for mesons and protons in available experimental data. This steplike behavior takes place for all considered EoSs and results from the freeze-out dynamics rather than being a signal of the deconfinement transition. A good reproduction of experimental inverse slopes and mean transverse masses for light species (up to protons) is achieved within all the considered scenarios. The freeze-out parameters are precisely the same as those used for reproduction of particle yields in previous papers of this series. This became possible because the freeze-out stage is not completely equilibrium. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Ivanov Y.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

It is argued that an irregularity in the baryon stopping is a natural consequence of onset of deconfinement occurring in the compression stage of a nuclear collision. It is a combined effect of the softest point inherent in an equation of state (EoS) with a deconfinement transition and a change in the nonequilibrium dynamics from hadronic to partonic transport. Thus, this irregularity is a signal from a hot and dense stage of the nuclear collision. In order to illustrate this proposition, calculations within the three-fluid model were performed with three different EoS's: a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with a first-order phase transition and that with a smooth crossover transition. It is found that predictions within the first-order-transition scenario indeed reveal a strong irregularity in the incident energy dependence of the form of the net-proton rapidity distributions in central collisions. This behavior is in contrast to that for the hadronic scenario, where the distribution form gradually evolves, displaying no irregularity. The case of the crossover EoS is intermediate. Only a weak irregularity takes place. Experimental data also exhibit a trend of similar irregularity, which is however based on still preliminary data at energies of 20. A GeV and 30. A GeV. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Ivanov Y.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Analysis of elliptic flow of protons and antiprotons in Au + Au collisions is performed in a wide range of incident energies sNN=7.7-62.4 GeV. Simulations has been done within the three-fluid model employing a purely hadronic equation of state (EoS) and two versions of the EoS involving deconfinement transition: an EoS with the first-order phase transition and that with a smooth crossover transition. It is found that the proton data are reproduced approximately to the same extent within all of the scenarios, including the hadronic one, while the deconfinement scenarios look certainly preferable for the antiproton elliptic flow. The fact that difference between elliptic flows of protons and antiprotons decreases with the incident energy rise is a consequence of reducing baryon stopping rather than an onset of deconfinement. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Ivanov Y.B.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

Simulations of relativistic heavy-ion collisions within the three-fluid model employing a purely hadronic equation of state (EoS) and two versions of the EoS involving deconfinement transition are presented. The latter are an EoS with the first-order phase transition and that with a smooth crossover transition. The model setup is described in detail. The analysis is performed in a wide range of incident energies 2.7 GeV ≤√sNN≤ 39 GeV in terms of the center-of-mass energy. Results on proton and net-proton rapidity distributions are reported. Comparison with available data indicate certain preference of the crossover EoS. It is found that predictions within deconfinement-transition scenarios exhibit a "peak-dip-peak-dip" irregularity in the incident energy dependence of the form of the net-proton rapidity distributions in central collisions. This irregularity is a signal of deconfinement onset occurring in the hot and dense stage of the nuclear collision. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Ivanov Y.B.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

Particle production in relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei is analyzed in a wide range of incident energies 2.7 GeV ≤√sNN≤ 62.4 GeV. The analysis is performed within the three-fluid model employing three different equations of state (EoSs): a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with the first-order phase transition, and an EoS with a smooth crossover transition. It is found that the hadronic scenario fails to reproduce experimental yields of antibaryons (strange and nonstrange), starting already from lower Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies, i.e., √sNN> 5 GeV. Moreover, at energies above the top SPS one, i.e., √sNN> 17.4 GeV, the midrapidity densities predicted by the hadronic scenario considerably exceed the available Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider data on all species. At the same time the deconfinement-transition scenarios reasonably agree (to a various extent) with all the data. The present analysis demonstrates certain advantage of the deconfinement-transition EoSs. However, all scenarios fail to reproduce the strangeness enhancement in the incident energy range near 30A GeV (i.e., a horn anomaly in the K+/π+ ratio) and yields of φ mesons at 20A-40A GeV. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Ivanov Y.,RAS Research Center Kurchatov Institute
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Global evolution of the matter in relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei and the resulting global freeze-out parameters are analyzed in a wide range of incident energies 2.7GeV≤sNN≤39GeV. The analysis is performed within the three-fluid model employing three different equations of state (EoS): a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with the first-order phase transition and that with a smooth crossover transition. Global freeze-out parameters deduced from experimental data within the statistical model are well reproduced within the crossover scenario. The 1st-order-transition scenario is slightly less successful. The worst reproduction is found within the purely hadronic scenario. These findings make a link between the EoS and results of the statistical model, and indicate that deconfinement onset occurs at sNN≳5GeV. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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