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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.2.2.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.48M | Year: 2011

GreenSeas shall advance the quantitative knowledge of how planktonic marine ecosystems, including phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and zooplankton, will respond to environmental and climate changes. To achieve this GreenSeas will employ a combination of observation data, numerical simulations and a cross-disciplinary synthesis to develop a high quality, harmonized and standardized plankton and plankton ecology long time-series, data inventory and information service. The focus will be on capturing the latitudinal gradients, biogeographical distributions and provinces in the planktonic ecosystem from the Arctic, through the Atlantic and into the Southern Ocean. It will build on historical data-sets, and ongoing multidisciplinary ocean planktonic ecosystem monitoring programs, enhanced where possible with an emphasis on the Southern Ocean. GreenSeas will also enhance international cooperative links with other plankton monitoring and analysis surveys around the globe. The heart of the GreenSeas concept is establishing a core service following the open and free data access policy implemented in the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. Using state-of-the-art web-based data delivery systems the core service will make available both new and historical plankton data and information products along with error-quantified numerical simulations to a range of users. Connecting with downstream services GreenSeas will moreover offer ecosystem assessment and indicator reports tailored for decision makers, stakeholders and other user groups contributing in the policy making process. Finally, knowledge transfer will be guaranteed throughout the project lifetime, while the legacy of the GreenSeas database web-server will be maintained for at least 5 years beyond the project lifetime.


Purchart L.,Mendel University in Brno | Nabozhenko M.V.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae | Year: 2012

Larva and pupa of Deretus spinicollis Schawaller, 2004 are described and illustrated for the first time. The systematic position of the genus Deretus Gahan, 1900 is discussed and an updated key to larvae for known Palaearctic genera within the tribe Helopini is given.


Christiansen J.S.,University of Tromsø | Christiansen J.S.,Åbo Akademi University | Mecklenburg C.W.,California Academy of Sciences | Mecklenburg C.W.,Point Stephens Research | Karamushko O.V.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, 'green technology', legitimate management and overarching coordination. © 2013 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Dvoretsky A.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute | Dvoretsky V.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2013

Dvoretsky, A. G., and Dvoretsky, V. G. 2013. Population dynamics of the invasive lithodid crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, in a typical bay of the Barents Sea. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: 1255-1262.We investigated population dynamics of the introduced red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), in Dalnezelenetskaya Bay, a typical coastal site of the Eastern Murman (Barents Sea) in summer over an 8-year period. In this bay, as in other coastal sites, juvenile crabs were most abundant. Among large crabs, the sex ratio was highly biased to females suggesting the important role of shallow water areas in reproduction of the red king crab. In 2002-2004, the carapace length (CL) frequency distribution of small crabs tended to be bimodal (30 and 60 mm). In 2005-2007 and 2009, crabs with a modal CL of 20 and 40 mm dominated. For small crabs, weight-length relationships were similar in males and females, while for large crabs the relationships differed significantly between sexes. Large males had a greater carapace width (CW) and merus length (ML), and higher CW/CL and ML/CL ratios, than large females due to sexual dimorphism. In 2002-2007, the total number of red king crabs was estimated to be 4100-7400 individuals; in 2008, we observed a marked decline to 350 individuals; in 2009, the total stock increased again to 3760 individuals. The observed patterns are in accordance with the stock dynamics reported for other coastal areas and could be associated with high levels of illegal fishing including recreational diving. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.


Dvoretsky V.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute | Dvoretsky A.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2013

Zooplankton link primary producers (phytoplankton) and higher trophic levels (fish, marine mammals, and seabirds) and are considered to be an important component in pelagic marine systems. In this paper we analyze a mesozooplankton data set obtained in the Barents Sea from 2003 to 2009 to test for climatic influences on some important parameters of the epi-zooplankton community in summer. The maxima of both mean water temperature in the upper 100m layer and averaged chlorophyll a concentration in the surface strata were recorded in 2006, which may be considered as an anomalously-warm year. Total mesozooplankton biomass ranged from 743±106mgCm-2 in the southern region to 3716±664mgCm-2 in the northern region. The proportions of herbivores and large zooplankters (animals with total length of 2.7-7.0mm) were highest in 2006 and tended to increase with temperature. Diversity, evaluated as the Shannon index of the mesozooplankton communities, was weakly correlated in time with environmental variables, and the mean and total number of taxa increased with water temperature in the southern and central Barents Sea. Most of the biological characteristics of the mesozooplankton community were only weakly correlated in time with the NAO and AO indices; however, the proportion of animals in 1.0-2.7mm and 2.7-7.0mm size classes tended to increase with increases in the monthly PC-based NAO index for August. Our data suggest that the complex zooplankton parameters (biomass, trophic and size structure, and diversity) can be useful in studying climatic impacts on marine ecosystems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Nekhaev I.O.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2016

In recent years, there have been frequent reports of invertebrate species newly recorded from particular areas of the Northeastern Atlantic, and it has often been suggested that these are the result of changes in species ranges due to recent warming. These suggestions make three assumptions: (1) that we have a good knowledge of the fauna of these areas; (2) that new records of “southern” species are more frequent than new records of “northern” species; (3) that climate change is the only factor affecting species range. I tested these assumptions on published records of 30 benthic molluscan species which have been found alive for the first time in the Russian part of the Barents Sea since 2006. Some of the discussed species are warm-water species and may have extended their ranges northward in response to climate change. However, our baseline knowledge of the molluscan fauna of this area before 2006 is limited by the frequent lack of molluscan specialists to study the available material, by the frequent lack of detailed publication and by changes in sampling and processing methods. New records of “southern” species are in fact not significantly commoner than new records of “northern” species. Also reasons other than climate change for observed changes in species distribution should be considered. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Dvoretsky A.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
Polar Biology | Year: 2012

Hyas araneus is the most common brachyuran crab in the coastal Barents Sea. Its epibionts were occasionally examined in 1940-1950s. To obtain modern information about associated organisms living on the crabs and compare new data with previous findings, the species composition, infestation indices, and spatial distribution of macro-epibionts colonizing H. araneus were examined in Dalnezelenetskaya Bay, a small semi-open gulf, in summer 2008-2010. A total of 41 taxa were observed on 48 crabs collected from depths ranging from 5 to 28 m. Red algae Ptilota plumosa (prevalence 39.6%) and Palmaria palmata (37.5%) as well as the copepod Harpacticus uniremis (39.6%) and the tube-dwelling worm Placostegus tridentatus (35.4%) predominated on the crabs. Infestation indices were similar in male and female crabs except for the turbellarian worm Peraclistus oophagus. Comparison with the previous study showed some changes in H. araneus fouling community that may be attributed to the shift of climatic regime or differences in sampling procedures. Presence of the amphipod Ischyrocerus commensalis, a new epibiont of H. araneus in the study area may be associated with introduction of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus. Infestation indices of common epibionts depend on the crab shell conditions. Localization of epibionts strongly depended on the settlement patterns of larvae and hostassociate relationships. Typical fouling organisms were found predominantly on the carapaces or limbs, while the majority of mobile species were recorded on the gills. Colonization of great spider crabs is beneficial for the epibiont species, whereas some negative effects for the basibiont could not be excluded. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Dvoretsky V.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute | Dvoretsky A.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
Polar Biology | Year: 2011

Copepods are considered to be the main component of the Arctic marine zooplankton. We examined the copepod distribution and diversity off Franz Josef Land (northern Barents Sea) in August 2006 and 2007. A total of 18 and 14 copepod taxa were identified from the sampling layers (100-0 m or bottom-0 m) in 2006 and in 2007, respectively. There were no significant differences in the total copepod abundance between the years (means ± SE: 118,503 ± 24,115 individuals m -2 in 2006 vs. 113,932 ± 28,564 individuals m -2 in 2007). However, the copepod biomass in 2006 (4,518 ± 1,091 mg C m -2) exceeded clearly the value in 2007 (1,253 ± 217 mg C m -2). The copepod community showed low species richness and diversity in both years (Simpson index D: 0.34 and 0.38, respectively). Biomass of the large and small copepod species strongly decreased from 2006 to 2007. The total abundance of copepods was negatively correlated with water temperature in 2006 and positively correlated with salinity in 2007. The patchiness in copepod distribution was associated with local hydrography and temperature conditions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Dvoretsky A.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute | Dvoretsky V.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2010

Species composition, prevalence, intensity, and spatial distribution of macro-invertebrates colonizing the invasive red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) in a typical bay of the Barents Sea, Dalnezelenetskaya Bay (depths 5-40 m), and adjacent deeper water (120-180 m) were examined in the summers of 2004-2008. In all, 43 associated species were found on the crabs. The most common epibionts were Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia), Obelia spp. (Hydrozoa), and Circeis armoricana (Polychaeta). Symbiotic species included Ischyrocerus commensalis and Ischyrocerus anguipes (Amphipoda), Harmothoe imbricata (Polychaeta), and Johanssonia arctica (Hirudinea). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of infestation between male and female crabs. The prevalence of most of the common species was greater in crabs with old shells than in crabs with new shells. Infestation levels of J. arctica were higher in deeper than in shallow water, and M. edulis was less abundant in deep water. All species found on the crabs appear to be native to the Barents Sea. However, I. commensalis amphipods were not found at the site examined before the introduction of the red king crab, indicating that their distribution may have changed after association with this host species. Introduced hosts may well influence the distribution of rare native species. © 2009 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.


Dvoretsky V.G.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
Polar Science | Year: 2011

The spatial distribution of Calanus species was examined near Franz Josef Land archipelago in August 2006 and 2007. Surface and bottom water temperatures exceeded the average multiannual values. Calanus species dominated the total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass, accounting for 818±178individualsm-3 (mean±SE) and 803±163mgwetweight(WW)m-3, respectively, in 2006. In 2007, the values were much lower (153±29individualsm-3 and 192±17mgWWm-3, respectively), reflecting the weaker influence of warm Atlantic water that year. Calanus glacialis dominated the Calanus populations, contributing 95% and 60% of the biomass in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Older copepodite stages (CIV-CV) predominated in the C. finmarchicus (69% and 76%, respectively) and C. hyperboreus populations (80% and 77%, respectively), whereas young copepodites (CI-CIII) were predominant in C. glacialis (45% and 59%, respectively). A clear negative relationship between the average water temperature and the total Calanus biomass was observed in 2006, whereas a positive correlation between these parameters was observed in 2007. The distributions of three Calanus species off Franz Josef Land were mainly associated with hydrological conditions and circulation patterns. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and NIPR.

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