The Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of science is a leading botanical institution in Russia, It is located on Aptekarsky Island in St. Petersburg, and is named after the Russian botanist Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov . The institute was established in 1931 as merger of the Botanical Garden and the Botanical Museum of the Academy of science.The institute hosts Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden as well as herbarium collections that house over seven million specimens of plants and fungi. The latter is the largest collection in Russia, and among the three largest in the world. Wikipedia.
Golovneva L.B.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation | Year: 2014
The following provinces are recognized in the Late Cretaceous within the Asian part of the Siberian-Canadian paleofloristic region: Chulym-Yenisei, Lena-Vilyui, North Siberian, Verkhoyansk, Mountain Okhotsk-Chukotka, Anadyr’, Amur, Sikhote-Alin, and Sakhalin-Japanese. It is proposed to consider the Central Asian (Turan) Province as belonging to the Euro-Sinian paleofloristic region. In the Cenomanian, the province also included the area of the southern Chulym-Yenisei Depression. In the maritime and northern provinces, a considerable occurrence of Mesozoic relics compared to the southern and continental ones is recorded. Similarity and distinctions between the floras of different provinces varied during the Late Cretaceous. Climatic conditions played a considerable role in species diversity and degree of differentiation or unification of the floras. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Gabarayeva N.I.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2014
A review of our own and literature data on the mechanisms of sporoderm (the wall of pollen grains and spores) development is presented in terms of colloidal interactions-the so-called micellar hypothesis (Gabarayeva and Hemsley, 2006; Hemsley and Gabarayeva, 2007), which suggests the participation of self-assembly processes in development. The development of exine (sporopollenin-containing part of the sporoderm) in five plant species from remote taxa has been traced in detail and interpreted as a micellar sequence. An experimental modeling of exine-like structures carried out in vitro, in which physicochemical patterns of colloidal systems (hydrophobic interactions) were the driving force, is strong evidence for the relevance of the micellar hypothesis and the promising nature of these studies. The correlation between the role of genomic control and self-assembly in the development of complex biological walls is discussed. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Pawlowski K.,University of Stockholm |
Demchenko K.N.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Protoplasma | Year: 2012
Filamentous aerobic soil actinobacteria of the genus Frankia can induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a diverse group of plants from eight dicotyledonous families, collectively called actinorhizal plants. Within nodules, Frankia can fix nitrogen while being hosted inside plant cells. Like in legume/rhizobia symbioses, bacteria can enter the plant root either intracellularly through an infection thread formed in a curled root hair, or intercellularly without root hair involvement, and the entry mechanism is determined by the host plant species. Nodule primordium formation is induced in the root pericycle as for lateral root primordia. Mature actinorhizal nodules are coralloid structures consisting of multiple lobes, each of which represents a modified lateral root without a root cap, a superficial periderm and with infected cells in the expanded cortex. In this review, an overview of nodule induction mechanisms and nodule structure is presented including comparisons with the corresponding mechanisms in legume symbioses. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Nosova N.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2013
The revision of the material from the Middle Jurassic sediments of Angren (Uzbekistan), comprising leaves, collar complexes, and seeds originally described together as a new putative pteridosperm genus Grenana Samylina (1990), suggests a ginkgoalean affinity of these plant remains. Morphological and epidermal characters of Grenana leaves fit the diagnosis of Sphenobaiera Florin, on the basis of which a new combination Sphenobaiera angrenica comb. nov. is designated, turning the generic name Grenana into a younger synonym of Sphenobaiera. ". Grenana" collar complexes, considered by Samylina to represent ultimate leaf segments with terminal cupules, are reinterpreted as compound generative axes consisting of peduncles, pedicels, and collars, and similar to female fructifications of the modern and fossil Ginkgo L. A new genus Nagrenia gen. nov. and species Nagrenia samylinae sp. nov. are erected to accommodate this kind of remains. It is confirmed that leaves and collar complexes share a similar epidermal pattern and thus likely represent parts of the same plant. Seeds of three types, all with characteristic ginkgoalean structure, are discovered in association with the leaves of S. angrenica comb. nov. Two kinds of seeds are placed within Allicospermum Harris and one in Ginkgo; a new species Allicospermum angrenicum sp. nov. is described. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Ilina E.L.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Annals of botany | Year: 2012
In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem development and root branching.
Novozhilov Y.K.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Mycologia | Year: 2013
A new widespread myxomycete species, Physarum pseudonotabile, inhabiting the arid regions of the Eurasia, South and North America is described and illustrated. Tentatively assigned to Ph. notabile T. Macbr., a phylogeny based on the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) and elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) genes placed the new species in a clade far from Ph. notabile. Ph. pseudonotabile was found to be frequent in surveys based on the moist chamber culture technique with samples of litter, bark and herbivore dung collected in dry steppe and deserts of the Caspian lowland (Russia), Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Spain, Argentina and USA. The main morphological difference between Ph. pseudonotabile and Ph. notabile lies in spore ornamentation. Spores of the former species display irregularly distributed verrucae, whereas the latter species possesses spores with dense and regularly arranged spinulae. In addition, the ecological preferences of the two species differ. Ph. pseudonotabile inhabits the bark of living plants and ground litter in arid regions, whereas Ph. notabile is found on coarse woody debris in boreal and temperate forests. Although the new species appears to be closest to Ph. notabile morphologically, the phylogenetic analysis reveals Ph. pusillum and Ph. nivale as the closest relatives. In addition, the molecular investigations revealed a considerable amount of hidden diversity within species of Physarum with gray lime flakes. Currently we have only sufficient material to assess the morphological variation of Ph. pseudonotabile but expect that more taxa within this clade may emerge within studies combining morphological and molecular analyses.
Averyanov L.V.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Taiwania | Year: 2011
Two rare, poorly known species - Peliosanthes yunnanensis (Convallariaceae) and Trichosma yanshanensis (Orchidaceae) were recently discovered in Vietnam representing new additions to the flora of the country. Detailed information on taxonomy, types, morphology, ecology, distribution and studied voucher specimens, as well as illustrations are provided here for both species. Two necessary nomenclature combinations are also proposed, namely - Trichosma chlorantha (Aver. & Averyanova) Aver. and T. yanshanensis (S.-C. Chen) Aver.
Zhurbenko M.P.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Lichenologist | Year: 2012
Twenty species of lichenicolous fungi are reported on Thamnolia species and discussed. Epithamnolia karatyginii gen. et sp. nov., Capronia thamnoliae sp. nov., Cercidospora epithamnolia sp. nov., C. thamnogalloides sp. nov., C. thamnoliae sp. nov., and Sphaerellothecium thamnoliae sp. nov. (var. thamnoliae, var. taimyricum) are described from Thamnolia. Dacampia thamnoliicola and Phoma thamnoliae are introduced ad interim. Cercidospora lecidomae is reduced to synonymy with C. punctillata. Polycoccum vermicularium is new to Asia, Odontotrema santessonii and O. thamnoliae are new to North America, Cladosporium licheniphilum is new to the Arctic, Thamnogalla crombiei is new to Greenland and Svalbard, Stigmidium frigidum is new to Mongolia and confirmed in the USA, Lichenopeltella thamnoliae is new to Bolivia. Cladosporium licheniphilum and Phaeospora arctica are newly documented on Thamnolia and Lichenopeltella thamnoliae on Thamnolia papelillo var. subsolida. Thamnolia vermicularis, supporting 23 species of lichenicolous fungi, is shown to be the 15th most hospitable lichen species in the world. A worldwide key to 23 species of fungi known to occur on Thamnolia is provided. © 2012 British Lichen Society.
Geltman D.V.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Willdenowia | Year: 2013
After the rearrangement of the system of Euphorbia subg. Esula Pers., E. sect. Chylogala (Fourr.) Prokh. contains four species: E. alaica (Prokh.) Prokh. (mountains of Middle Asia), E. heteradena Jaub. & Spach (Southwest Asia), E. retusa Forrsk. (deserts of North Africa and Southwest Asia) and E. serrata L. (West Mediterranean). This group is revised here. Special attention is given to E. alaica, a poorly known species from Kyrgyzstan and Tadjikistan. Lectotypes are designated for the names Euphorbia coriacea K. Koch, E. megalantha Boiss. and E. megalantha var. denticulata Boiss. © 2013 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.
Vassilyev A.E.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute
Annals of botany | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND AND SCOPE: Models of nectar formation and exudation in multilayered nectaries with modified stomata or permeable cuticle are evaluated. In the current symplasmic model the pre-nectar moves from terminal phloem through the symplasm into the apoplasm (cell walls and intercellular spaces) with nectar formation by either granulocrine or eccrine secretion and its diffusion outwards. It is concluded, however, that no secretory granules are actually produced by the endoplasmic reticulum, and that secretory Golgi vesicles are not involved in the transport of nectar sugar. Therefore, the concept of granulocrine secretion of nectar should be discarded. The specific function of the endomembrane system in nectary cells remains unknown. According to the apoplasmic model, the pre-nectar moves from the terminal phloem in the apoplasm and, on the way, is transformed from phloem sap into nectar. However, viewed ultrastructurally, the unloading (terminal) phloem of nectaries appears to be less active than that of the leaf minor veins, and is therefore not actively involved in the secretion of pre-nectar components into the apoplasm. This invalidates the apoplasmic model. Neither model provides an explanation for the origin of the driving force for nectar discharge. PROPOSAL: A new model is proposed in which nectar moves by a pressure-driven mass flow in the nectary apoplasm while pre-nectar sugars diffuse from the sieve tubes through the symplasm to the secretory cells, where nectar is formed and sugars cross the plasma membrane by active transport ('eccrine secretion'). The pressure originates as the result of water influx in the apoplasm from the symplasm along the sugar concentration gradient. It follows from this model that there can be no combinations of apoplasmic and symplasmic pre-nectar movements. The mass-flow mechanism of nectar exudation appears to be universal and applicable to all nectaries irrespective of their type, morphology and anatomy, presence or absence of modified stomata, and their own vascular system.